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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the function of hormones?
Maintain homeostasis.
What are the six types of chemical communication?
1. Neurocrine (synaptic transmission)
2. Autocrine
3, Paracrine
4. Endocrine
5. Pheromones (but less in humans than animals)
6. Allomones (flowers and skunks)
What are the first three of nine principles of hormonal action?
1. Act gradually, over extended periods of time
2. Hormones alter intensity or probability of behaviors, not "all-or-none"
3. Quantities and types of hormones released depends on both external and internal factors, with reciprocal interaction between the two
What are the second three (4-6) of nine principles of hormonal action?
4. One hormone may affect multiple tissues and behaviors; one behavior or tissue site may respond to multiple hormones.
5. Hormones (with some exceptions) are usually produced in small amounts and released in "bursts" (pulsatile action)
6. Levels of hormones may vary rhythmically, controlled by internal "clocks"
What are the last three (7-9) of nine principles of hormonal action?
7. Hormones interact
8. Hormones are similar in structure across species, but not necessarily in function.
9. Hormones can only affect structures with the right receptor protein.
In comparing neurotransmission to hormonal effects, what are the four main differences?
1. Hormones are "broadcast" and affect many parts of body that may be distant from sources.
2. Hormone messages last seconds to minutes or even hours, not milliseconds.
3. Hormone messages are usually analog rather than "all-or-none"(digitized) like neural transmission.
4. Much harder to voluntarily control or change hormonal messages.
In comparing neurotransmission to hormonal effects, what are the three main similarities?
1. Hormones are stored to await secretion similar to neurotransmitters in vesicles.
2. Second messenger systems are common to both, and are often the same second messengers (e.g., cAMP and cGDP)
3. There must be a specific receptor present to respond to a hormone
What is the bridge between neurotransmission and hormonal systems
neuroendocrine cells: an arriving action potential , from ordinary neuron, triggers release of hormone instead of a new action potential
What are the three types of hormones?
Protein, amine, and steriod
What are the main characteristics of protein and amine hormones?
Strings of amino acids, Short strings get called peptide hormones, and may often act as neuromodulators (cotransmitters), i.e., they alter reactivity of cells to other transmitters or hormones.
1. Bind to surface receptors
2. Second messenger system that changes proteins that are already present inside the cell. Examples: cAMP, cGMP, phosphoinosotides.
3. Relatively rapid action: seconds to minutes
What are the main characteristics of steroid hormones?
Steroid hormones—four interconnected rings with various molecules attached
1. Pass through cell membrane and bind to receptors inside the cell; if no receptor, the steroid just goes right through. Must also have receptor cofactors for cell to respond.
2. Receptor-protein complex passes into nucleus and binds to DNA, which affects the production of new proteins. Cofactors determine which genes get activated
3. Generally much slower, longer-lasting effect compared to other hormones: hours to days or longer
4. Also a nongenomic effect, from receptors in membrane, in some cases IV.
How are hormones regulated?
Most hormones are regulated via negative feedback loops.
What different types of hormonal feedback loops exist?
1. Autocrine
2. From target cell
3. To the brain and/or the secreting gland
4, More complex involving the hypothalamus and pituitary
What is the function of the posterior pituitary?
Contains axons of neuroendocrine glands that originate in the hypothalamus and releases them directly in the bloodstream.
What hormones does the posterior pituitary produce?
Oxytocin and Vasopressin
What are the two common abbreviations for Vasopressin?
ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone) &
AVP (arginine vasopressin)
What is the function of the Anterior Pituitary?
It contains cells that produce tropic hormones that are stimulated to release (or inhibit release) by "releasing hormone" from the hypothalamus
What are the seven main releasing hormones?
thyrotropic¬releasing hormone (TRH)
corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH):
gonadatropic-releasing hormone (GnRH)
prolactin-releasing peptide
prolactin-inhibiting factor (dopamine?)
What are the six main tropic hormones?
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Leuteinizing hormone (LH); Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Growth hormone (Gil)
What does ACTH do?
controls production and release of steroid hormones in adrenal cortex
What does TSH do?
stimulates release of thyroid hormones, which are stored in large quantities
What does LH do?
stimulates release of egg from ovary or production or testosterone
What does FSH do?
stimulates secretion of estrogen or testosterone
What does prolactin do?
stimulates development of lactation
What does GH do?
influences growth of cells and tissue, but released only during early stage sleep
What process do the Anterior Pituitary hormones follow?
Hypothalamus sends releasing hormone into portal blood veins that take it into pituitary, which then release the tropic hormones into the main blood system
*portal veins therefore do not share blood-brain barrier with rest of the brain circulatory system
*feedback information comes through the portal system
What is the target of ACTH and what hormone does that gland produce?
The adrenal cortex (outside)

The adrenal cortex produces: a. glucocorticoids (cortisol)
b. mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
c. sex steroids (androstenedione)
What is the target of TSH and what hormone does that gland produce?
The thyroid

The thyroid produces:
Thyroid hormones
What are the targets of LH & FSH and what hormones do those glands produce?
The testes and the ovaries.

The testes and the ovaries produce testosterone (androgens), estrogens, and progestins
What does the adrenal medulla produce?

What part of the nervous system does it belong to?
epinephrine and norepinephrine

part of sympathetic nervous system
How are thyroid hormones different than most amine hormones?
They act like steroids and bind DNA to regulate gene expression
Do gonadal tropic hormones have more complex effects in males or females?
What are sex hormones derived from?
What type of hormone do all sex hormones start out as?
What does the pineal gland secrete?
What does melatonin do?
Melatonin affects sleep, and also sensitivity of hypothalamus to negative feedback from gonadal steroids.
What is hypovolemic thirst caused by?
General loss of body fluids, without changes in sodium concentration inside or outside cells
What is osmotic thirst caused by?
Sudden increase in extracellular solute (e.g., NaCl) from a salty meal
What is the initial sequence of events in hypovolemic thirst?
a. Baroceptors in kidneys inform brain of fluid loss
b. Hypothalamus releases vasopressin (ADH), when reduces flow of water out of kidneys
c. Kidneys release renin into blood, which converts angiotensinogen into
angiotensin I, which then converted in angiotensin II
What effects does angiotensin II have on the body (hypovolemic thirst)?
a. Constriction of blood vessels
b. circumventricular organs (especially the subfornical organ) trigger drinking
c. ADH is released
d. Alsosterone is released
Explain the relationship between Glucagon and Insulin
Glucagon is released in response to low blood sugar, and causes liver to convert glycogen into glucose and thus increase glucose levels: direct negative feedback.
Insulin released in response to rising blood sugar, and causes increased uptake of glucose and reduced output of glucose by liver, so glucose levels fall
What are examples of protein hormones?
ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH, GH, prolactin, insulin, glucagon, oxytocin, AVP, CRH, GnRH, etc.
What are examples of amine hormones?
What are examples of steroid hormones?
Androgens (testosterone)
Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
What two specific regions of the hypothalamus create hormones?
supraoptic nucleus
paraventricular nucleus
What is the name of the blood system which the neuroendicrine cells release releasing hormones?
The portal system, also known as the hypophyseal.
What does cortisol do?
increases the level of blood glucose and accelerates breakdown of proteins
What does aldosterone do?
Acts on kidneys to retain sodium and reduce urine production
What are the hormone secreting cells of the pancreas called?
Islets of Langerhans