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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is learning responsible for?
Many of the similarities and differences in human behavior
What is learning?
Relatively permanent changes in relationships between behavior and environmental stimuli due to certain types of experience
What are the 3 criteria for changes of learning?
1) Changes must be long lasting
2) Changes are in relationships between behavior and stimuli
3) Changes result from only certain types of experiences, not just any experience
What are 2 reasons that learning has been of interest to psychologists?
1) It is a powerful determinant of behavior
2) Understanding learning allows for development of an effective behavior-change technology
What was Ivan Pavlov studying when he discovered conditional reflexes?
the physiology of digestion/salivary reflex
automatic, stereotyped responses to specific stimuli
What did Pavlov first try to explain the dogs behavior with?
The thoughts, wishes, and memories of the animal
Why was the work of Pavlov significant (4 things)?
1) It relied on strict experimentation using objective variables
2) It shifted the search for causes of behavior from inside the organism to observable events in the environment
3) It used nonhuman objects
4) Demonstrated classical conditioning
What two types of reflexes did Pavlov differentiate?
1) Unconditional
2) COnditional (new term for psychic secretions)
Unconditional reflexes
occurrence not dependent on experience during the animal's lifetime;

the relationship between a US and UR
Conditional reflexes
occurrence depends critically on specific variables; behavior is not present at birth;

depends on learning;
is less permanent
Antecedent stimulus
the name of a stimulus that directly precedes the response (is a proximate environmental cause)
Unconditional stimulus (US)
any stimulus that elicits a response in the absence of a special learning history
Unconditional response (UR)
response elicited by an unconditional stimulus
the diminished capacity of an unconditional stimulus to elicit an unconditional response as a result of repeated exposures to that stimulus
What are six characteristics of habituation?
1) General phenomenon evident across many reflexes
2) Beneficial because it keeps organism from wasting energy and time
3) May be considered a form of learning, although changes are not as permanent
4) Does not involve simple fatigue or satiation
5) Is stimulus-specific
6) Does not involve general waning of responsiveness
What does classical conditioning provide in behavior beyond that provided by unconditional reflexes?

under different conditions, the same stimuli may initiate quite different reflex actions, or the same reactions may be initiated by different stimuli
Stimulus-stimulus pairing
an arrangement in which some other stimulus (CS) reliably and more or less immediately precedes an unconditioned stimulus;

after pairing, the CS comes to reliably elicit a response (CR) that is similar to that elicited by the US
Conditional stimulus
prior to being paired with the unconditional stimulus, the CS is a neutral stimulus
Neutral stimulus (NS)
does not elicit a response similar to that elicited by the unconditional stimulus, although it may control other responses
Conditional response (CR)
the response elicted by the CS
When has classical conditioning occurred?
When a CS comes to elicit a CR reliably
What was the CS, US, CR, and UR in Pavlov's experiment?
CS: tone
US: meat powder
CR: salivation elicited by tone
UR: salivation elicited by meat powder
What were the steps in Pavlov's experiment?
1) Present the tone alone to make sure it is neutral
2) Present the tone just before the food is presented
3) After several pairings, the tone is presented alone and elicits salivation
Conditional reflex
a learned relationship in which a conditional stimulus comes through classical conditioning to elicit a conditional response
What are the three steps to demonstrate classical conditioning
1) The stimulus to be established as a CS is presented several times to demonstrate that it is a neutral stimulus prior to being paired with the US
2) The NS is paired repeatedly with the US, which changes the NS into a CS
3) The CS is presented alone and if it elicits the CR, classical conditioning has occurred
Higher-order conditioning / second-order conditioning
after an NS has been established as a CS, it can be paired with other neutral stimuli to make them into conditional stimuli
What are conditional and unconditional responses known collectively as?
Respondent behaviors
What four dimensions are respondent behaviors measured along?
1) Magnitude
2) Latency
3) Percent occurrence
4) Duration
amount or force of a response
time elapsed between the onset of some stimulus and the occurence of a response
Percent occurrence
relative number of CS presentations that elicit the CR
the time elapsed from the onset to the offset of the response
What does the measure used depend upon?
The nature of the response
What type of muscles do respondent behaviors usually involve?
Smooth muscles or glands
What must one also be aware of when determining whether behavior is respondent?
The organism's learning history and the stimuli that elicit the behavior
Delayed conditioning
the CS begins before the US and ends either when the US begins or when the US ends
Trace conditioning
A measurable period of time (called the trace interval) elapses between the end of the CS and the onset of the US;

effective when the trace interval is short
Simultaneous conditioning
when the CS and US occur at the same time

NOT effective in classical
Backward conditioning
When the CS occurs after the US

NOT effective in classical
What is a necessary condition for classical conditioning?
That the CS and the US are correlated in time, so that the probability of the US occurring is greatest after the CS occurs
Classical extinction
cessation of responding due to presentation of a CS not paired with a US;

serves an organism by preventing it from responding needlessly
Spontaneous recovery
If a period of time passes from the end of one series of extinction trials to the beginning of another series, the CS will once again elicit the CR, although the reflex will not be as strong
Stimulus generalization
Stimuli that are physically similar to a CS may elicit the same CR, even though they have never been paired with the US
Wasp example
Child stung by wasp
-US: sting
-UR: pain/activation response
-CS: the sight and sound of the wasp
-CR: fear of wasps

The child will also be afraid of wasp-like insects
What determines the likelihood that an untrained stimulus will elicit a response similar to the conditional response?
How similar it is to the conditional stimulus (CS)
How can stimulus generalization be reduced?
Classical discrimination training
Classical discrimination training
a CS is repeatedly paired with a US, whereas another stimulus (that is physically different from the CS along a specifiable dimension) is repeatedly presented without being paired with the US
Dog tone example
Dog receives food after a high frequency tone, but not after a low frequency tone. Eventually the low frequency tone will not elicit salivation
What are two reasons that unconditional reflexes are important?
1) They minimize adverse effects of environmental variables
2) They keep our bodies within working limits
What are unconditional reflexes a result of?
Ultimate phylogenetic causation (evolution)
What are conditional reflexes a result of?
Ultimate ontogenetic causation (learning)
What are three ways that Taste aversion learning differs from conventional classical conditioning?
1) Learning typically occurs after only one pairing of the CS and the US
2) The effective interval between the CS and the US can be minutes or hours
3) Involves operant as well as classical conditioning (avoidance of the food is operant)
What was the rat radiation example?
Rats who preferred drinking sugar water over tap were given sugar water and then exposed to gamma radiation, which caused nausea. Later, the rats drank tap water over sugar water
What can happen with cancer patients?
They can develop conditioned taste aversion to foods eaten prior to radiation therapy;

some even become nauseous when entering the hospital setting where they received treatment
How was drug-induced immunosuppression classically conditioned in rats?
Rats in the experimental group drank a sugar solution (CS) and were then injected with a drug (US) that produced immunosuppression (UR).
Rats in the control group were injected (US) without sugar water.
Later they were exposed to germs and then given sugar water. The rats in the experimental group had a lower immune function.
How was immune function raised in mice?
Skin grafts (US) automatically led to increased production of T-Cells (UR).
After the mice had grafts, exposures to surgical procedures associated with skin grafts (CS), but with no skin actually grafted, still raised T-cell production (CR)
How can classical conditioning be used to help combat immunosuppression?
Women who will receive chemo could be exposed to the hospital setting several times before starting treatment in order to establish latent inhibition / CS-preexposure effect
Latent inhibition / CS-preexposure effect
The CS is repeatedly presented before it is paired with a US;

each presentation of the CS alone in a sense "predicts" the absence of the US
How does the latent inhibition help chemo patients?
By being exposed to the hospital setting (CS) without the treatment (US), it will take longer for the treatment area to become a CS for nausea or conditioned immunosuppression
How was the courtship of quails conditioned?
A buzzer (CS) was sounded for 10 seconds, after which a female bird (US) was placed in the male's cage.
The female was removed after copulation or after 1 min from the start of the buzzer (CS);
After pairings, the males began to display courtship behavior (CR) at the sound of a buzzer (CS)
How were human males conditioned to be aroused at the sight of boots?
They were shown slides of boots (CS) right before being shown slides of attractive nude women (US);
after pairings, the men became aroused at the sight of the boots
What does classical conditioning play a role in developing?
Sexual fetishes
the effects of a drug diminish as a result of repeated exposure to that drug;

greater tolerance is observed under conditions in which the drug has regularly been administered in the past
What was the experiment with three groups of rat to show effects of environment on tolerance?
The experimental groups were given heroin and dextrose every other day. On the final day, the rats in one of the exp groups was given a larger dose in an environment where they had received smaller doses before; the other exp group was given heroin in an environment in which dextrose had been given in the past.

The study showed that the rats given the heroin where they had been given dextrose had a higher mortality rate because of the novel environment (The CS of the old environment wasn't there to trigger the CR of tolerance)
Siegel's tolerance model
Stimuli paired with drug administration become CSs that evoke CRs that are OPPOSITE of the URs elicited by the US;

The CRs counteract the URs elicited by the drug
What is an example of Siegel's model?
Heroin (US) produces euphoria (UR). The environmental stimuli (CS) produce dysphoria (CR); the more heroin administered in the setting, the greater the dysphoria, and the more heroin needed to get the original feeling of euphoria
When are drug overdoses most likely?
When the drug is administered under unusual circumstances
How do some psychologists still explain classical conditioning?
By speaking about mental events;

that the dogs "associated" or "expected" the food when they heard the tone
What are these explanations not?
Parsimonious or scientifically adequate
What are more parsimonious and sientifically adequate explanations in terms of?
Proximate and ultimate variables
Why is a US a proximate environmental cause?
Because of the evolutionary history of the species; or ultimate phylogenetic causation
Why is a CS a proximate environmental cause?
Because of classical conditioning, or ultimate ontogenetic causation
What two things are fundamental to fully understanding behavior?
Understanding classical conditioning and understanding operant conditioning