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142 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
: symptoms and signs of mental disorders.
abnormal psych
the application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders.
refers to several types of severe mental disorder in which the person is considered to be out of contact with reality.
group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder
harmful dysfunction
causes some harm to the person and if the condition results from the inability of some mental mechanism to perform its natural function.
defined in terms of its values, beliefs and practices that are shared by a specific community or group of people.
the scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population
refers to the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time.
refers to the total number of active cases, both old and new, that are present in a population during a specific period of time. (snapshot)
the presence of more than one condition within the same person.
branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders
clinical psych
the application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders.
social work
concerned with helping people to achieve an effective level of psychosocial functioning.
sharp knife is inserted through a hole that was bored in the patient’s skull, severing nerve fibers connecting the frontal lobes to the rest of the brain. Thought to reduce negative emotions during stress
case study
an in-depth look at the symptoms and circumstances surrounding one person’ mental disturbance.
null hypothesis
the prediction that an experimental hypothesis is not true. Must assume it holds until it has been proven wrong.
expiramentel hypothesis
a new prediction made by an investigator to be tested in an experiment.
set of shared assumptions that include both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test the theory.
biopsychosocial model
view of the etiology of mental disorders which assumes that disorders can best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological and social systems.
psychoanalysis theory
paradigm for conceptualizing abnormal behavior. Highlights unconscious processes and conflicts as causing abnormal behavior and emphasizes psychoanalysis as the treatment of choice.
present at birth and houses biological drives, such as hunger, sex and aggression. Operates according to the pleasure principle.
part of the personality that must deal with the realities of the world as it attempts to fulfill id impulse as well as perform other functions. Operates according to the reality principle.
equivalent to the conscience. Contains standards of behavior, particularly rules that kids learn from trying to be like their parents.
defense mechanism
unconscious self-deceptions that reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-producing memories, emotions and impulses. Used by ego to resolve conflict of the id and superego
classical conditioning
learned through association.
occurs once a conditioned stimulus no longer is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
operant conditioning
: learned behaviors is a function of its consequences. Specifically, behavior increases if it is rewarded and it decreases if it is punished.
systems theory
an approach to integrating evidence on different contributions to abnormal behavior. (biopsychosocial)
focusing on smaller and smaller units, viewing the smallest possible unit as the true cause. Ie: brain chemistry is the cause of depression.
the view that there are many routes to the same destination.
the same event can lead to different outcomes.
Reciprocal causality
causality works in both directions.
predisposition toward developing a disorder.
a difficult experience.
risk factors
events or circumstances that are correlated with an increase likelihood or risk of a disorder and potentially contribute to causing the disorder.
dev. psych
emphasizes that importance of developmental norms- age-graded averages- to determine what constitutes abnormal behavior.
premorbid history
a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of the disorder.
a predictable course for the future.
billions of tiny nerve cells that form the basic building blocks of the
a small gap filled with fluid that separates the axon terminal from other cells.
a chemical substance that is found in vesicles.
receive neurotransmitters
process that captures neurotransmitters in the synapse and returns the chemical substances to the axon terminal.
limbic system
links the higher mental processes of the forebrain with the midbrain and hindbrain.
controls basic biological urges: eating drinking and sexual activity.
cerebral hemispheres
most of the forebrain is composed of these two hemispheres.
: one hemisphere serves a specialized role. Ie: L= language R=right and wrong
cerebral cortex
uneven surface area of the brain that lies just underneath the skull. Divided into lobes.
study of changes in the functioning of the body that result from psychological experiences.
endocrine system
collection of glands found at various locations throughout the body
chemical substances that affect the functioning of distant body systems.
autonomic nervous system
regulates the functions of various body organs
units of DNA about heredity
chainlike structures found in the nucleus of cells
beh genetics
studies genetic influences on the evolution and development of normal and abnormal behaviors
individual’s actual genetic structure
the expression of a given genotype that is observable.
caused by more than one gene
index cases (family members who have the same disorder)
Monozygotic (MZ) twins
identical twins (1 egg, 1 sperm)
Dizygotic (DZ) twins
fraternal times (2 eggs, 2 sperms)
concordance rate
agreements amongst Probands/twins
shared environment
the experiences the two twins share in common
nonshared environment
the experiences that are unique to one twin.
evolutionary psych
: application of the principles of evolution to our understanding of the animal and human mind.
special and selective bonds with their caregivers
the hierarchical ordering of a social group into more and less privileged members
characteristic styles of relating to the world. Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
internal feeling states
leaned through imitation
perceived causes, people’s beliefs about cause-effect relations
internal rules for guiding appropriate behavior
developmental stages
periods of time marked by age and/or social tasks during which children or adults face common social and emotional challenges
social support
the emotional and practical assistance received from others
view that the mind and body are separate
Correlation coefficient
indicates the strength of relations between two variables. Higher=stronger sign=direction of relationship
reverse cauality
indicates that the causation could be operating in the opp direction
third variable
: an unmeasured factor that may account for a correlation observed between any two variables
gender roles
expectations regarding the appropriate behavior of males or females
use of psychological techniques and the therapist-client relationship to produce emotional, cognitive and beh change
different treatments for different disorders
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT):
deliberately inducing a seizure by passing electricity through the brain
surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain
the study of the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances
psychotropic meds
chemical substances that affect psychological state
free association
speak freely about whatever thoughts cross mind
uncovering the unconscious state of mind
ultimate goal of psychoanalysis is to bring formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness
main tool for promoting insight
process whereby patients transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure of the analyst
psychodynamic psychotherapy
less lengthy form of psychoanalysis
cognative beh therapy
teaching new ways of thinking, acting and feeling using different, research-based techniques
study of observable behavior
Systematic desensitization
technique for eliminating fears.
independent variable
variable controlled and carefully manipulated by the experimenter
experimental group
those who receive an active treatment
control group
those who do not receive an active treatment
dependent variable
the outcome that is hypothesized to vary according to manipulations.
statistically significant
only if it occurs by chance in fewer than 1 out of every 20 experiments
aversion therapy
sical condition to create, not eliminate an unpleasant response. Ie: pairs alcohol with nausea
token economy
desired and undesired behaviors are rewarded and punished by tangible desires.
social skills training
teach clients new ways of behaving that are both desired and likely to be rewarded in everyday life.
cognative therapy
developed to treat specifics
rational emotion therapy (ret)
used to persuade the client to adopt more realistic beliefs
humanistic psychotherapy
therapy as a way to help people to make their own life choices and resolve their own problems
emotional understanding
theraputic alliance
bond between therapist and client
statistical procedure that allows researches to combine the results from different studies in a standardized way
placebo effect
powerful healing produced by apparently inert treatments.
double-blind study
neither the physician nor the patient knows whether the placebo is prescribed
whether the treatment can work under prescribed circumstances
whether the treatment can work in the real world
allegiance effect
tendency for researches to find that their favorite treatment is the more effective
couples therapy
seeing intimae partners together in psychotherapy
family therapy
family member in a treatment designed to improve family life
group therapy
the treatment of three of more people in a group setting.
primary prevention
promote health not just treat illness
secondary prevention
early detection of emotion problems
tertiary prevention
intervention occurs after the illness has been identified
experimental method
powerful scientific method that allows researches to determined cause and effect
process of gathering information
the identification and recognition of a disorder on the basis of its characteristic symptoms
classification system
used to organized a set of objects
caterogical approach to classification
distinctions among members of different categories are qualitative. All or nothing
Dimensional approach to classification:
describes objects of classification in terms of continuous dimensions: How much/kinda
labeling theory
perspective on mental disorders that is primarily concerned with the social context in which abnormal behavior occurs and the ways in which other people respond.
label that sets the person apart from others
culture-bound syndromes
patterns of unusual thinking and behavior that have been identified in diverse societies around the world
statistical index of reliability
importance of a measurement
Etiological validity
concerned w/factors that contribute to the onset of a disorder
concurrient validity
concerned with the present time and with correlations between the disorder and other symptoms, circumstances and test procedures
Predictive validity:
concerned with the future and the stability of the problem over time
beh coding system
focuses on the frequency of specific behavioral events
people may alter their behavior when they know they are being observed
personal inventories
consist of a series of straightforward statement/ true and false in relation to himself
Actuarial interpretation:
analyzing results of a test on the basis of an explicit set of rules that are derived from empirical research
projective tests
person is presented with a series of ambiguous stimuli
rating scale
tool in which observer is asked to make judgments that place the person somewhere along a dimension
consistency of measurements
conditions that must be present for a positive diagnosis
conditions that, if present, rule out positive diagnosis