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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Muscles of Posterior abdominal wall:
Psoas major/minor
Quadratus lumborum
Action of Psoas major/minor:
Major: Flex hip
Minor: nothing
Action of Quadratus lumborum:
Bend trunk to side
Action of Iliacus
Flex hip
Result of obturator nerve injury:
Unable to adduct leg
Result of Femoral nerve injury:
Result of L2/3/4 injury:
Unable to Flex hip only (can still extend knee)
How are kidneys situated in relation to abdominal cavity?
Vertebral level of kidneys:
T12 - upper pole
L3 - lower pole
How are the kidneys positioned in relation to each other?
Right kidney is LOWER than left
Where are the adrenals in relation to the kidneys?
Where are the renal pyramids -cortex or medulla?
Where are the glomeruli?
Where are the renal columns?
Between pyramids
What runs in the columns?
LOBAR arteries and veins - connecting the renal arters to arcuate arteries/interlobar arteries
Flow of urine thru kidneys:
1. Glomeruli
2. Collecting ducts
3. Medullary ray
4. Medullary pyramid
5. Renal papillae
6. Minor calyx
7. Major calyx
8. Renal pelvis
9. Ureter
10. Urinary bladder/urethra
Plexus that gives efferent nerve fibers to kidneys:
Aorticorenal plexus
How renal nerves get from Aorticorenal plexus to kidneys:
Follow renal artery
Spinal cord segments associated w/ Renal afferents:
Renal Colic:
intense pain from kidney stones - referred to T12-T12 but actually peristaltic spasms in ureters
Fron to back Relationship of renal vessels and ureter:
Vein -> Artery -> Ureter
Which renal vein is longer?
Major difference between L/R gonadal veins:
Left - drains into L renal vein

Right - drains into IVC directly
Scrotum vericocele
Dilation of the left scrotum b/c its vein drains to a smaller vessel (renal) than right (IVC)
Result of left scrotum vericocele:
Infertility due to increased temperature of left testicle.
Order of bloodflow INTO kidneys:
Renal artery
Segmental artery
Interlobar artery
Arcuate artery
Interlobular artery
Afferent artery / glomeruli
What structure passes IMMEDIATELY anterior to the left renal vein?
Superior mesenteric artery
Where is the URETER situated in relation to abdominal vessels?
-Posterior to gonadal vessels
-Anterior to Iliac vessels
What 3 layers surround the kidneys?
-Pararenal fat
-Transversalis Fascia (inside pararenal fat)
-Perirenal fat (inside fascia)
Relatively common inherited kidney disorder:
Polycystic kidney - kidney covered w/ external cysts
What do 10% of patients w/ Polycystic kidney present w/?
Berry's aneurism - in Circle of Willis
What supplies blood to Ureter:
-Upper 1/3
-Middle 1/3
-Lower 1/3
Upper = Renal Artery
Middle = Gonadal Artery
Lower = Superior vesicular artery
What gives sympathetic innervation to the ureters?
What gives parasymp innervation to the ureters?
Vagus nerves and Sacral Outflow
Major difference in Adrenals Shapes:
Right = triangle

Left = SemiLunar
2 main parts to the adrenal gland:
3 sources of blood supply to adrenals; where ea comes from:
1. Superior Suprarenal A. - from inferior phrenic artery
2. Middle Suprarenal A. - directly off Aorta
3. Inferior Suprarenal A. - from Renal Artery
Innervation of the Adrenal Gland:
Cortex = POSTganglionic sympathetic fibers

Medulla = PREganglionic sympathetic fibers
What is produced
-By cortex
-By medulla
Cortex = corticoids

Medulla = adrenaline (catecholamines)
Nerves of the lumbar plexus:
Lateral cutaneous femoral n.
Origin of Subcostal; where does it run?
-Across quadratus lumborum
-Pierces Transversus Abdominis muscle
Innervation provided by Subcostal nerve:
Cutaneous sensory to region inferior to Umbilicus, superior to Pubic Symphysis.
Origin of Iliohypogastric; what does it innervate?
Cutaneous sensory to skin/muscl above external inguinal ring.
Landmark nerve in Hernia Operations: why?
Ilioinguinal - b/c it goes THROUGH THE INGUINAL RING.
Numbness in abdomen after hernia surgery indicates:
The iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves were cut.
Origin of Genitofemoral nerve: How does it run?
Genitofemoral nerve bifurcates into:
-Genital branch - runs thru inguinal ring to cremaster muscle
-Femoral branch - cutaneous sensory
What nerve fibers are in the genitofemoral nerve?
MIXED - sensory and motor
What motor innervation does Genitofemoral provide?
Cremasteric Reflex
Which kidney is most commonly used in transplants?
Who is more hurt by a transplant?
Donor - have to go deeper to get it out