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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When treating specific phobias it is important to remember ________________
Exposure is currently considered the best intervention for most (if not all Anxiety D.O. However, the best way of exposing clients to stimuli that elicit anxiety depends on the particular disorder. For Specific Phobia, brief in vivo exposure is effective for many clients, and adding a cognitive compoinent usually does not improve the effects of the intervention substantially.
Vygotsky believes this has the greatest impact on the development of language
social relationships
construct validity
examples = discriminant and convergent validity
If you correlate your test w/another one, you expect high correlation which means convergent validity. If a low corerlation w/other tests measuring sthg your test is not supposed to measure, then discriminant validity.
Retroactive interference
Occurs when your ability to recall X is difficult because of interference by something you learned AFTER X. The longer the period of time bn learning X and being tested on it, the greater the opportunity for retroactive interference.
Proactive interference
Occurs when the ability to recall X is impaired by PREVIOUSLY learned material. This can occure regardless of how long the itnerval is bn learning X and recalling it.
Proactive & Retroactive Interference
Are most likely to be a problem for information that is not inherently meaningful, which would be the case for a set of unrelated words.
Pearson r
Allows you to assess the relationship bn two variable that are measured on a continuous (interval or ration) scale. It is a bivariate (e.e., for two variables) correlation coefficient used when variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale.
Job commitment has a high correlation with
Absenteeism and turnover. The degree to whcih a person identifies with an organization and is willing to work to help the organization reach its goals, suggests that it has a moderate to strong negative correlation with absenteeism and turnover. Job satisfaction is also highly correlated with these two variables.
These descriptive words are most opposite in nature
Speed and Power. Pure speed tests and pure power tests are opposite ends of a continuum. A speed test = one with a strict time limit and easy items that most or all examinees are expecte to answer correctly. Speed tests measure examinees' response speed. A power test=one with no or a genrous time limit but with items ranging from easy to very difficult. Power tests measure level of content mastered.
Relaxation and Coping skills training
Most experts advocate a comprehensive tx approach for chronic pain. Their recommended treatments involve teaching the pat a number of coping skills designed to alleviate pain and improve the patient's feelings of control.
Presbyopia (nearsightness)
A common result of normal aging, increases from four inches at 20yo, to 48 at 60yo. Due to a loss of elasticity in the lens of the eye. some people have different rates of decline, but it eventually affects everyone.
Damage to parietal lobe
1) left right confusion
2) tactile agnosia (inability to identify objects by touch using contralateral hand)
Apraxia and problems w/body movement
Can be related to damage to either the parietal lobe or frontal lobe
Incidence of Major Depression in females vs males
Is 2:1
Does not become evident until mid-adolescence. Until that time, it is about equal for boys and girls.
Requirements for dx of bulimia nervosa
1) binge eating (lack of control in eating bxs)
2) inappropriate compensatory behavior for at least three months (purging, excessive exercise).
Introjection (per Gestalt theorists)
involves absorbing ghe values or bxs of others, including the larger society, w/o really understanding or assimilating those values or bxs. Represents a disturbance in boundary bn self and others.
According to behaviorist, Anxity is the result of
classical conditioning in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event acts as a US. The US naturally evokes anxiety.
Classical Conditioning
acquisition of INVOLUNTARY responses (e.g., eye blink when puff of air in eye)
Operant Conditioning
acquision of VOLUNTARY responses (Pavlov's dog)
Goal Setting theory
goals are best attained when they are specifica nd moderately difficult.
Left hemisphere stroke symptoms likely to be
1) right hemiplegia
2) speech-language deficits
3) slow - cautious bx style
Right hemisphere damage
probably involves spatial difficulties, quick-impulsive bx style
Multitrait - Multi method matrix
one method of assessing a test's CONSTRUCT validity. It contains correlations among diff't tests that measure both the same and different traits using similar and different methodologies.
Heterotrait-monomethod coefficient
reflects the correlation bn 2 tests that measure diff't traits using similar methods (depression self report measure vs anxiety self report measure). Good divergent validity = low correlation.
Implosive therapy
Immediate exposure thru imagination to a feared stimulus at maximum intensity. Purpose = extinguish a person's fear. It incorporates psychodynamic themes thought to underlie the fear into the imagery.
Management development techniques include
1)Coaching or mentoring
2) job rotation
3)and Outward Bound
Lewin's field theory holds that
bx is a function of the r'ship between a person and his environment. B = f(P,E).
In field theory Life Space is
a central concept and refers to everything in a person's psychological environment - not the collective unconscious.
self-directed work teams
Determine their own goals, plan their own work processes, and may even hire their own replacements. Team members are generalists and each member learns a broad range of skills.
Language acquisitions according to Chomsky
Relies primarily on innate biological capacities (nativist position).
Damage to hippocampus
results in deficits in long term memory. It is center where memory is consolidated or transferred from STM to LTM.
Prefrontal Cortex
Associated w/short term memory, executive functions
Implicit memory
A type of LTM. Is less affected by damage to hippocampus than other types of LTM.
Defn. of Implicit memory
refers to using stored information without trying to retrieve it. People often retain and use prior experiences without realizing it. For example, suppose that the word serendipity is not part of your normal working vocabulary, and one day you hear the word used in a conversation. A day later you find yourself using the word in conversation and wonder why. .
Defn. of Explicit memory
refers to the deliberate, conscious recollection of facts and past experiences. If someone asked you to recall everything you did yesterday, this task would require explicit memory processes. There are two basic types of explicit memory tests: recall tests and recognition tests.
According to psychoanalysts mania represents
a dense against depression. Due to an inability of the person to tolerate or admit to being depressed.
Paired comparions vs merit comparisons
Paired comparisons are more precise but more difficult. Compare each person w/every other person. Time consuming. Merit comparisons rank order the people in terms of some criterion.
Techniques used by solution-focused therapists
1) miracle questions
2) scaling questions
Miracle question
Invites client to imagine what it would be like if his/her px was suddenly gone.
Scaling question
invites each family member to rate a situation to see how the px is perceived by otheres.
the scatter is uneven at different points of the continuum. Myight be hi variablity around the regression line at low X values, low variablity around the line at hi X values. Refers to a differential level of scatter, not hi scatter
Primary purpose of feedback in organizational dev't context
facilitate organizational change. Phases = entry, contracting, dx, feedback, planning change, intervention, and evaluation.
work samples
are good predictors of job success, assuming of course that there is a way to devise an accurate work sample.
According to Holland, a highly differentiated person
scores hi on only one of the six personality types (a distinct individual w/disting personality). Person would not be a blend of the 6 personality types.
Holland's theory of career development
Career choice is a function of personality and the social environment. 6 types = RIASEC.
Super's theory of career development says career maturity is
the extent to which a person has mastered the tasks related to his or her developmental stage and is prepared to move on to the next stage.
Super's theory of career development
5 stages= growth (0-15yo), exploration (15-24yo), establishment (25-44), maintenance (45-64), & decline (65 and over).
Self-concept = a person's abilities, interests, values, personality traits, etc. PEOPLE CHOOSE THE CAREER CONSISTENT WITH THEIR SELF-CONCEPT.
According to Super, job satisfaction is most related to
development of self-concept thru work roles. People achieve satisfaction when they are able to express themselves and develop self-concept.
A self-report inventory assessing general psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, OC, and hostility. Likert scale.
An MRI of an early stage Huntington's disease pt would show
reduce volume of the basal ganglia. This disease is caused by degeneration of several areas of the brain.
Native Americans
Have the hightest reported incidents of child abuse. Other ethnicities rank as follows: Whites (50%), AA (25%), Hispanic (15%), Native Am (2%), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (1%); however, Native Ams and AA child abuse viitms are 2X greater than general population.
Referent power is
power based on a person's attraction to or desire to be like the holder of power.
Expert power is
based on the belief that the power holder has special knowledge or expertise
Coercive power is
the result of the holder's ability to punish others
Reward power is
the result of the holder's ability to reward others.
Stratified random sampling
Involves dividing a population of interest into subpopulations (strata) & obtaining random samples from each strata. Technique is designed to ensure that subjects are representative of the population of interest. It NOT to control for the effects of an extraneous variable.
These techniques are used to control for the effects of an extraneous variable
James-Lange theory
we feel afraid bc we tremble.
Proposes that we feel after our body reacts.
Engineering psych
concerned w/fitting aspects of the job to the worker. Focus is on the total environmental syst, including procedures, work environmnets, and the design and functioning of equipment.
Panic Disorder in Pre-adolescence
is most likely manifested as chest pain, tachycardia, shortness of breath, & refusal to go to school. Onset usually bn late adolscence and mid 30s. Small number of cases in childhood (6yo - 12yo).
Exposing a person to a feared stimulus in order to extinguish the fear. Theory = the feared stimulus was previously a conditioned stimulus paired w/an unconditioned aversive stimulus that naturally produces fear (e.g., little albert, rabbits, and loud noise =>flood him w/rabbits).
The outcome of racial/cultural identity development is
the final stage in Atkinson, Sue, & Sue' model. Also known as the "integrative awareness stage". Indivs in this stage recognize that all cultures have both positive and negative aspects and decide which aspects they want to accept or reject.
Effects of maternal deprivation
if occurs in the first few years of life, it does not necessarily prevent children from developing strong attachments to adopted parents. Strong attachment more likely in adopted children than children returned to bio parents. However, they showed overfriendliness toward strangers, had more peer pxs, and fewer close r'ships than non-institutionalized children.
Delinquincy has been linked to which parental characteristics?
Lax supervision, noneforcement of rules, and noninvolvement in the child's life.
Biographical Information Blanks
found to be highly predictive of job success and only slightly less valid than cognitive ability tests for predicting job performance. Often lack face validity.
Troyden's model of homosexual identity development
Stages = sensitization, identity confusion, identity assumption, and identity commitment. Sensitization starts b4 puberty and consists of homosexual feelings or experiences w/o understanding them in terms of self ID. Identity confusion, (adolescence: 17yrs for males, 18yrs for females) consists of realization that they may be homosexual. Identity assumption (19-21yrs males; 21-23 females) and = coming out. Identity commitment (21-24 males, 22-23 females)=adoption of homosexual lifestyle.
Infant intelligence tests
Are poor predictors of adult and even childhood intelligence. They are better predictors for babies who score very low. Thus, they are most useful as screening devices to identify babies at risk for future developmental delays or pxs.
When you use various tests for prediction
Each of the tests you use should have some r'ship to the thing you are predicting. It is best if each of the tests tells you something diff't and apart from the others; each should contribute some unique info to the equation. The tests themselves should not correlate w/each other.
Triangulation according to Bowen
To reduce tension bn them, family members often resort to triangulation thereby refocusing their attention on the triangulated member.
Multicultural competence
is most often attributed to one's level of awareness, knowledge, and skills.