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61 Cards in this Set

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Lo LPC leaders
describe their least preferred coworker in negative terms when the situation is very favorable or very unfavorable.
Hi LPC leaders
describes her least preferred coworker in positive terms and is most effective when the situation is moderate in terms of favorableness.
MID model of identity development
Stages = conformity, dissonance, restistance and immersion, introspection & synergetic articulation.
Each stage involves a different combination of attitudes toward one's own culture and the majority culture (reflects different levels of acculturation.
Foreclosure stage of ethinic ID development
characterized by commitment to one's ethnicity w/o much exploration of what that means. Minority adolescents are more likely than white adolescents to be in the this stage.
Identity achievement stage
the adolescent struggles w/alternatives among potentional personal choices, which leads to a commitment to a personal choice.
Identity Diffusion
Implies a lack of commitment regardless of whether there has been a crisis.
Moratorium stage
Focuses on an ongoing crisis that as yet showns no clear commitment.
Performance and arousal
Having others around us while we work increases our arousal which can have a positive or negative effect on performance, depending on the situation.
What therapy approach is best when working w/minorities
Multisystems since it includes extended family and ensures that social, political, and societal factors are considered during the therapy process.
What is the ethical issue psychotherapists encounter most often
Confidentiality
Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type
Is the most common type of dementia among older adults. This rate increases with increasing age. About 20% of people over 85yo have it.
What disorders may co-occur w/childhood enuresis?
Sleepwalking and Sleep Terror are the most likely to be present.
Brainstorming
Is better alone than in a group. You'll produce more creative solutions when four people brainstorm alone than when they do so as a team.
Regardless of the type of apraxia, it is typically caused by damage to
the frontal and/or parietal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere. It is never due to paralysis, cognitive impairment, or sensory loss
Cartharsis according to Yalom
It is an open expression of affect and a curative factor in group therapy. HOwever, his research showed that it is important not so much as an opportunity to ventilate feelings but because of its facilitation of other group phenomena (e.g., cohesiveness and interpersonal learning).
Nightmare disorder is most associated with
REM sleep
Sleep Terror and Sleep Walking usually occur in what stage of sleep?
Stages 3 and 4
Depression in kids and adolescents manifests differently based on developmental stage
1)psychomotor agitation shown as tantrums and/or aggressive behavior
Satisficing
According to the administrative decision-making model, it entails making a decision because the leader doesnt have time to consider all possible alternatives
Rational-economic model
involves considering all possible alterrnatives
The final stage in ERikson's psychosocial development
is integrity vs. despair. Successful resolution = individual gains wisdom and finds meaning of life
Methylphenidate (ritalin)
Is a central nervous system stimulant.
It was originally described as having aparadoxial effect only for children and adolescents with ADHD.
Subsequent research found similar effects in normal children and adults.
Reinforcement
Maintains or increases a behavior by the consequences that follow it
Positive Reinforcement
Occurs when consequences are being applied rather than withdrawn
Factor analyses of leadership qualities has shown that
Task orientation (instrumentatility) and consideration.
Side effects of clonidine
Although safe for chronic use, it may cause dry moth, headache, hypotension, sedation, and dizziness.
Studies re: psychotherapy effectiveness for children and adolescents found
no difference for adolescents and children or a slight superiority for children. Weisz et al recently found that therapy outcomes were better for adolescents than children, esp. female adolescents when the counselor was a professional or student rather than a paraprofessional. Other studies suggest that adults do somewhat better than children and adolescents.
Non-sexist therapy
is more concerned w/personal responsiblity and personal change.
Feminist therapy
places equal or greater emphasis on the sociopolitical contributions to pathology and the need for social change.
The rates of psychiatric hosptialization
are highes for males and females who have never been married.
Functional value
According to Bandura, a bx has functional value when the person anticipates that performing it will result in desirable consequences (ie, when the bx serves a function).
According to Milan, when narcissistic people experience failure
they resort to repression, then rationalization, then projection.
Which technique has been found useful for reducing aggression in children
For long term results, teaching them alternative, nonaggressive, prosocial bxs works best.
Propanolol
Is a beta-blocker which reduces the physiological aspects of anxiety and therefore may also reduce tremors caused by Lithium meds.
Repeated epileptic seizures
In some cases has been associated with cognitive decline, especially for tonic-clonic seizures regardless of whether they are idopathic or secondary to another disorder
auto-correlation
associated with time-series designs. It means observations obtained close together in time from the same subjects tend to be highly correlated.
When t tests are used in situations where scores within each comparison group are highly correlated
within group variability tends to be suppressed and the result is an artificially high t value.
Fixed interval schedules
reinforcement occurs after a fixed period of time regardless of the number of responses made. They are associated w/a scallop effect whereby responding is very slow or non-existent immediately following reinforcement and then gradually increases and is finally very rapid b4 another reinforcement is due
Difference bn Acute Stress and PTSD
If sxs for less than 4 wks and includes dissociative sxs in addition to the haracteristic sxs of PTSD, then it's acute stress
Quality Circle
is a small group of workers in the same department or division who meet regularly to discuss how their work can be improved. They increase productivity and decrease absenteeism, but have not been shown to increase job satisfaction or improve attitudes toward work, possibly bc they are not binding (e.g., pajama game) on management or the larger organization
Separation anxiety
Onset = 8 mos.
Rises dramatically until age of 18 mos (1.5 years)and then gradually falls off until it is negligible bn the ages of 24-36 (2 to 3 yo).
Difference bn older adults and younger adults re: memory and learning
Older adults have more difficulty w/recall. They are roughly equal on recognition tasks w/cueing.
Flextime
Allows the employees to make their own schedule as long as they are present for the core hours and work the required number of hours. It is associated with increased job satisfaction, better attitudes toward the job and work environment, and less worker stress.
Item difficulty index
TELLS THE PERCENTAGE OF INDIVS WHO ANSWER A PARTICULAR ITEM CORRECTLY. aN INDEX OF .80 MEANS THAT 80% ANSWERED CORRECTLY. iT REPORTS THE DIFFICULTY OF THE ITEM IN TERMS OF AN ORDINAL SCALE.
Ordinal Scale
A scale that is ordered but lacks a the property of equal intervals.
Professional values
are concerned with what is good and desirable
Professional Ethics
refer to correct or appropriate practice. They are usually derived from professional values.
Hypothyroidism
Occurs when the thyroid gland secretes an abnormally low level of thyroxin (hypo=low). Symptoms resemble those of depression (lo level = low mood): weight gain, depression, lowered body temp, deficits in concentration and thinking, slowed heart rate.
Ratio scale
1) has successive data points that reflect equally distant scores from each other & (2) the scale has an absolute 0 point; a score of 0 reflects a complet absence of whatever is being measured. Only scale that has this quality.
Regression analysis
Is used to predict an unknown criterion(Y) on the basis of a known (X) value. It is based on the assumption that there is a linear r'ship between X and Y. The regression line is drawn at the place where the sum of squared distance of the indiv scores from the line is lowest (least squared criterion). The predicted Y score is close to the mean Y score at each value of X obtained by indivs in the sample used for the analysis.
Environmental factors and Bipolar disorders
Despite their strong genetic and biological component, environmental factors can trigger episodes, especially in the initial mood episoders. They less frequently trigger subsequent episodes.
Hypnosis
Is reflective of an alteration in perception, mood, and memory. It involves a heightened state of concentration and increased receptivity to the suggestions of another person.
The classic performance equation
P = f{A X M}. Performance is a fun of ability and motivation. Ability is more important in this equation than otivation. Environmental factors also play a role.
Disclosure in groups
We are more likely to talk openly about ourselves after someone else opens up about himself (aka SELF DISCLOSURE RECIPROCITY)
AIDS prevention for low risk groups
Peer group norms are one of the stronger predictors of whether or not a person is willing to practice safe sex.
Future work force demongraphics
1/3 of the entering workforce will consist of minority group members.
The reticular formation
A system of neurons that extends throughout the brain. The DRAS diminishes arousal responses at the onset of sleep. The ARAS screens sensory input during sleep and arouses the brian stem when info related to survival must be processed.
Tangentiality
going off on a tangent. Is defined as responding to a questions in an oblique or irrelevant way; the person avoids the point entirely.
Circumstantiality
Is a patter of speech that is delayed in reaching the point due to much irrelevant detail or many parenthetical remarks. Eventually, the point is reached.
Stuttering
The onset is sually bn the ages of 2-7 w/peak onset at age 5. In 98% of cases, onset is b4 age 10. It is 3Xs more common in males and is accompanied by motor movements.
Holland's personality types
RIASEC.there is overlap between the types, though some types overlap more than others. Social is similar to artistic and enterprising types, and less similar to realistic, investigative, and conventional types.