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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Forensic Toxicology?
the application of toxicology for the purpose of law
What are the 3 major subfields of fosc tox?
postmortem toxicology
human performance toxicology
forensic drug testing
What did Paracelus say about toxicology?
"solely the dose determines that a thing is a poison"
How did Paul Ehrlich contribute to fosc tox in 1891?
...
When did Forensic toxicology dev. in the u.s.?
early 20th century
who changed the NYC coroner system to the medical examiner system?
Charles Morrison
What did Maurice Nicloux and Eric Widmark do for fosc tox?
performed studies on the pharmocokinetics of alcohol
who invented the breathalyzer?
Robert Borken
What is the purpose of toxocological lab analysis?
identify the substance
quantify the substance
What other types of investigations is tox. lab analysis involved in?
homicides
accidental deaths
natural causes
why would homicides need tox. lab analysis?
many are drug related
drug abuse may provide motive
someone who is udner the influence is more likely to commit or become a victim
why would accidental deaths need tox lab analysis?
impairment is an issue
when would imparment be an issuse in accidental deaths?
drunk driving
therapeutic levels/OTC drugs
LA regs require that a specimen sample be taken in all traffic fatalities
What is the coroner system?
elected by the ppl or by a govt authority. no official traingin is necessary.
what is the medical examiner system?
usually elected by the health department. must be a physician. usually a pathologist.
why would natural causes need tox. lab analysis?
what type of medications were they on?
were they over/under medicated?
why did this single vehicle crash happen?
do labs ever get samples from nursing homes?
yes
y would a death need 2 b investigated?
unnatural
suspicous
what are some examples of unnatural or suspicous deaths?
involivng violence
criminal activity
potential suicide
what is one of the most overlooked components of forensic tox. analysis?
the collection of proper samples
what is the most important specimen? why?
blood. it travels throughout the entire body.
how must blood be collected?
2 tubes of blood
heart/periphal site
tell me about vitreous humor.
stable sample
collected in all postmortem cases
anatomically isolated area so it resists putrefactive changes
analysis of vit humor helps in the analysis of postmoretem BAC
why would urine be collected?
collect all urine in postmortem cases
shows a history due to the presence of drugs and/or metabolites
can run screening assay easily
tell me about bile collection
good sample if urine is not available
collect all
drugs concentrate such as narcotics and benzo's
what is specimen receipt and accessioning?
getting the specimen to the lab f or analysis
crucial in all cases
many DUI cases come down to this
what are the analytical processes-types of testing.
require 2 confirmational tests or 1 conf. test and 1 screening test
what dos a conf test test for?
analyte
what does a screenign test test for?
drug class
immunoassays are an example of what?
screenign test
chromatography is an example of what?
confirmation test
separation is...
not necessary for some urinalyses
what are some examples of seperation?
ELISA
EMIT
how are volatiles tested?
vapor condensed for analysis
headspace sampling
what is liquid-liquid extraction used for?
blood and urine
what is solid-phase extraction used for?
THC metabolite
what is spectrophotometry?
a form of identification
it is a type of screening
it has low sensitivity for therapeutic concentrations
can i.d. parent drug from metabolite
list and explain a form of chromatography.
GC-

can be modified to increase a sample's resolution, sensitivity, and specificity.
mobile phase options
temperature programming
different detectors
what test can be done directly on urine?
immunoassays
good sensitivity
looks for classes of drugs
what is needed for confirmation?
2 different techniques needed for a true positive
LA regs require a GC MS confirmation
tell me about quantification
determine cause versus the contributor
internal standard is used to increase precision
when we are talking about alcohol in toxicology analysis, what form are we talking about?
ethanol
what does BAC stand for?
blood alcohol concentration
should multiple specimens be tested? what type of analysis should be done?
yes. replica analysis. 2 samples are made of same blood specimen rather than the same sample being tested twice (duplicate analysis).
GC is...
standard in LA
in direct analysis with I.S.
what is headspace sampling?
taking sample of air above a liquid
labs must have methods for both therapeutic and abused drugs. what are some tests used to screen for drugs?
immunoassays-screening test
GC MS-confirmation test
GC-quantification
what should be interpreted from death due to toxic/lethal doses?
multiple drug interactions
contribuiton of therapeutic levels
what are the regulations for reporting?
all work must be reviewed as per the lab's internal quality controlr standars
the report must be signed by analysist doing the work and by the director of the lab
the report must include all of the important info from the sub
only then can the report be submitted to the agency which requested it