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26 Cards in this Set

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Fowlers position
semi-sitting position in bed with head and trunk raised 45-90 degrees ( for difficulty breathing, cardiac problems.
Common problem made with fowlers position
placing too large a pillow behind clients head, can promote neck flexion contractures due to poor neck alignment.
semi-fowlers position
head and trunk raised 15-45 degrees
high fowlers position
head and trunk raised 90 degrees (knees may be flexed to prevent friction and shear injuries to skin)
orthopneic position
sits in bed or on the side of the bed, leaning on over-bed table- facilitates respiration by allowing maximum chest expansion, particularly helpful to clients having problems exhaling or COPD.
dorsal recumbent (back lying)
client's head and shoulders slightly elevated on a small pillow-provides comfort -facilitates healing following certain surgeries or anesthetics (spinal)
supine
back lying without pilow
prone
client lies on abdomen w/ head turned to one side- allows full extension of hip and knee joints-helps prevent flexion contractures of hips and knees-promotes drainage from mouth for unconsciuos cients or following mouth or throat surgeries
disadvantages of prone pos.
prolonged pull of gravity produces marked lordosis, neck is laterally rotated, causes plantar flexion, can be suffocating to clients w/ cardiac or resp. problems, not recommended w/ cervical or lumbar spine problems
lateral
client lies on one side of body or the other-flexion reduces lordosis and promotes good back alignment-relieves pressure on sacrum and heels-body wt is borne on lateral aspect of lower scapula or ilium or greater trochanter of the femur-good for resting and sleeping
sims (semi-prone)
position halfway b/n lateral and prone positions-lower arm positioned behind client, upper arm flexed at shoulder and elbow-both legs flexed in front of client with upper leg more acutely flexed-facilitates drainage from mouth and prevents aspiration-reduces pressure over sacrum and greater trochanter of paralyzed clients- used for giving enemas or exams/treatment of perineal area- comfortable sleeping pos for pregnant women.
trendelenburg
body resting flat on an inclined plane w/ head lower than legs-sometimes used in pelvic surgery-pvd procedure-contraindicated in shock-client w/ shock or hypotension should be placed flat w/ small pillow under head, legs elevated at a 45 degree angle
reverse trendelenburg
body resting flat on an inclined plane w/ legs lower than head-prevents reflux- decreases intercranial pressure assoc. w/ head injury- raising just head of bed can increase ICP by constricting blood flow to lower extremities
lithotomy (dorso-sacral)
client lying supine w/ the hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted and rotated externally-child birth-some surgeries
knee-chest(genupectoral)
body weight is supported on knees and chest w/ buttocks raised, head is turned to one side, and arms are flexed so upper part of the body is supported in part by the elbows- gynecological or rectal exams
devices used for positioning
pillow-position extremities, props for turning, relieve pressure b/n bony prominences.
trochanter rolls
prevent external rotation of the head of the femur in the acetabulum
hand rolls
prevent hand contractures
splints
prevent or treat contractures of joints
side rails
positioning aid for clients
trapeze bar
positiong aid
bed board (transfer board)
lifting clients b/n bed and stretcher
wedges
positioning w/ turning, prop to take pressure off both sacrum and trochanter
foot board
prevent foot drop contractures, prevent friction and shear injuries from sliding down in bed
cradle
supports covers on bed to take pressure, weight off toes
sandbags
turning and positioning, immobilizing extremity