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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Risk factors for spinal cord injury?
MVA
Young
male
Trauma
High Falls
Osteoporosis
Diving
Surfing
Primary prevention for spinal cord injury?
Education - diving
Legislation
Randomized Breathe Testing
Seat belts, child safety seats, Safer roads & cars
Random breath testing, legislation
Helmut use, diving education, workplace safety
Falls prevention measures and education
Secondary prevention for spinal cord injury?
Protective Equipment – harnesses, helmets, etc
Improved retrieval, specialized care, early decompression
Tertiary prevention for spinal cord injury?
Immobilization
Aggressive management
Steroid injection
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation programs
Education and self management re: health maintenance (regular check ups, nutrition, exercise, pressure area care
Risk factors for stroke?
Diabetes
Dyslipidemia
FHx
HTN
Atrial fibrillation
Age
Males
Myocardial infarction
Smoking
Cocaine
OCP
Obesity
Primary prevention for stroke?
Discourage smoking
Promote healthy diet, active lifestyle
Monitor BP
Secondary prevention for stroke?
Lower BP
Antithrombotic agents
Carotid revascularization
Warfarin anticoagulation
Lipid lowering agents
Aspirin
FAST
Tertiary prevention for stroke?
Aspirin as soon as possible
Avoid full dose heparin
Management in an acute stroke unit
Thrombolysis if readily available
Risk factors for dementia?
FHx
Head injury
Low education
ApoE4
Smoking
Aluminium
Down Syndrome
Alcoholism
Prion disease
Primary prevention for dementia?
Healthy diet, exercise
Education
Secondary prevention for dementia?
Cognitive exercises
MMSEs for elderly
Tertiary prevention for dementia?
cholinesterase inhibitors
memantine (NMDA)
antidepressants
trazadone
carer support
Risk factors for epilepsy/seizures?
Idiopathic
FHx
Head trauma
Drug withdrawal
Primary prevention for epilepsy/seizures?
Helmet laws
Secondary prevention for epilepsy/seizures?
Good compliance
Good sleep patterns
Helmets
Avoid strobes/triggers - hypoglycemia
Tertiary prevention for epilepsy/seizures?
Medication
Avoid triggers
Risk factors for birth defects?
Folate deficiency
Teratogenic medication
smoking
Maternal age
Primary prevention for birth defects?
Education – age, toxins
Folate fortification
Secondary prevention for birth defects?
Folate supplements
Abstain from alcohol
Tertiary prevention for birth defects?
amniocentisis
Risk factors for meningitis?
URTI
Penetrating head injuries
Neurosurgery
Cancer & immunodeficient states
Alcohol
Contact with infected patients
Primary prevention for meningitis?
Vaccination – influenzae, HIP
education
Secondary prevention for meningitis?
Face masks & gowns
Prophylactic antibiotics
notification
Tertiary prevention for meningitis?
Antibiotics
Csteroids
Risk factors for migraine?
Female
Travel
Menstruation
Stress
Sleep deprivation
OCPs
Secondary prevention for migraine?
Prophylactic medication
Trigger avoidance
Tertiary prevention for migraine?
Medication
Rest
Risk factors for Multiple Sclerosis?
Female
Higher latitude (before age 16)
FHx
HLA – DR15
Tertiary prevention for Multiple Sclerosis?
Avoid heat
Csteroids
Interferon-beta
methotrexate
Risk factors for Parkinson's Disease?
MPTP
Smoking
Coffee
Pesticides
genetic
Secondary prevention for Parkinson's Disease?
PPE – head
Tertiary prevention for Parkinson's Disease?
L-DOPA
DBS
COMT inhibitors
MOAI
Risk factors for depression?
Childhood abuse
Thyroid disease
Brain injuries
Chronic disease
Social isolation
Parental mental health
Primary prevention for depression?
Exercise & Diet
Positive Parenting Program (Triple P)
Depression campaigns
Secondary prevention for depression?
Exercise
Educating social support
Tertiary prevention for depression?
Antidepressants
Exercise
CBT/counselling
ECT
Risk factors for schizophrenia?
FHx
Drug abuse
GAD-65
Tertirary prevention for schizophrenia?
antipsychotics
Risk factors for thyroid disorders?
Female
Thyro-gastric autoimmunity
Iodine deficiency
Primary prevention for thyroid disorders?
Iodine fortification (salt, milk)
Secondary prevention for thyroid disorders?
Investigations
Tertiary prevention for thyroid disorders?
Surgery
Medications
Iodide supplementation
Carbimazole or PTU
Risk factors for T2DM?
Dyslipidemia
HTN
Obesity
FHx
PCOS
Age
History of Gestational Diabetes
ethnic
Primary prevention for T2DM?
Food labels
Health promotion
Smoking cessation
Secondary prevention for T2DM?
Exercise
Diet
Weight loss
Monitor HbA1c
Statins
Education about food
Tertiary prevention for T2DM?
Metformins
Insulins
Regular monitoring HbA1c/BSLs
Risk factors for infertility?
Age
Gynaecological issues
Obesity
Chronic disease
Radiation
Tubal disease
misconception
Primary prevention for infertility?
Promote exercise
education
Secondary prevention for infertility?
Reduce BMI
More sex
Investigations
Tertiary prevention for infertility?
Adoption
Surrogacy
IVF
Risk factors for steroid excess?
Taking steroids
Pituitary tumour
Primary prevention for steroid excess?
legislation
Tertiary prevention for steroid excess?
Remove steroids
Surgery for tumour
Monitor
Correct electrolyte imbalances
Risk factors for STIs?
Unprotected sex
Multiple partners
Other STIs
Prior infection
IVDU
Sex worker
MSM
Contact with infected person
Primary prevention for STIs?
Education
Barrier Contraception
Immunization
Abstinence
Reportable disease
Secondary prevention for STIs?
Barrier Contraception
Screen high-risk populations
Targeted education
Tertiary prevention for STIs?
Barrier Contraception
Antibiotics
Antivirals
Education
Wart removal
Contract tracing
Risk factors for obesity?
Lower SES
smoking
Primary prevention for obesity?
Active lifestyle
Good diet
Food labels
Secondary prevention for obesity?
Active lifestyle
Good diet
Tertiary prevention for obesity?
Active lifestyle
Good diet
Risk factors for uterine cancer?
Late menopause
Nulliparity
Prolonged unopposed estrogen exposure
Obesity
Other cancers
Familial Cancer Syndromes
Polycystic ovarian disease
Hypertension
Diabetes
Secondary prevention for uterine cancer?
Oral Contraceptive Pill
Alcohol
Progestogens
Risk factors for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
Age
Male
Secondary prevention for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
PSA
DRE
Tertiary prevention for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
Alpha-inhibitors
Risk factors for prostate cancer?
Male
Age
Genetics
Urban
Black
High dietary fat
smoking
Primary prevention for prostate cancer?
Screening programs
Education
Health Care Campaigns
Secondary prevention for prostate cancer?
PSA
DRE
Tertiary prevention for prostate cancer?
Finesteride
Radiotherapy
Risk factors for Acute Kidney Injury?
Crush injuries, rhabdo
Hypotension
Iatrogenic
IV contrast
Infection
dehydration
Primary prevention for Acute Kidney Injury?
Access to drinking water
Secondary prevention for Acute Kidney Injury?
Hydration
Tertiary prevention for Acute Kidney Injury?
Hydration
Correct electrolyte imbalance
Dialysis
Antibiotics
Remove obstructions
Risk factors for Chronic Kidney Disease?
T2DM
HTN
GN
Recurrent UTIs
Indigenous
Polycystic renal disease
Analgesic renal disease
Obstructive nephropathy
Secondary prevention for Chronic Kidney Disease?
Screening
Monitoring
Treat HTN
Treat T2DM
Tertiary Prevention for Chronic Kidney Disease?
Dialysis
Kidney transplant
Low protein diet
Dietary restrictions – water/Na, potassium,
ACE-I
Risk factors for Kidney Stones?
Dehydration
Genetic – AH-I/-II
UTI –
Summer (stone belt)
Primary prevention for Kidney Stones?
Education
Varied diet
Secondary prevention for Kidney Stones?
Vitamin C
Hydration
Reduced caffeine and tomatoes
Tertiary prevention for Kidney Stones?
Diet - Vitamin C,
Avoid – caffeine, tomatoes
Nephrostomy
Lithotripsy
Allopurinol/ chlorthalidone
Risk factors for Gallstones?
Fat
Female
Fair
Forties
Age
Estrogen (OCP, pregnancy)
Rapid weight loss
Bile stasis
Hyperlipidemia syndromes
Chronic haemolytics syndromes
Increased unconjugated Bilirubin
Biliary infection
GI disorders – Crohn’s, CF
Primary prevention for Gallstones?
Promote healthy lifestyle
Secondary prevention for Gallstones?
Low fat intake
Statins
Tertiary prevention for Gallstones?
ERCP
Statins
Risk factors for peptic ulcers?
H pylori
NSAIDs
Stress
ZE syndrome
smoking
Primary prevention for peptic ulcers?
Education re: NSAIDs
Legislation re: dosages
Secondary prevention for peptic ulcers?
Triple therapy
Urea breathe test screen
PPI
Tertiary prevention for peptic ulcers?
Triple therapy
Quadruple therapy
PPI
Risk factors for Acute Liver Disease?
Alcohol
Hepatitis virus
Paracetamol OD
IVDU
Haemachromotosis
Primary prevention for Acute Liver Disease?
Vaccinations
Legislation – dosages
Education re: alcohol
Risk factors for Acute Liver Disease?
Vaccination
Needle exchange
Protocol for needle stick injuries
Primary prevention for Acute Liver Disease?
N-acetyl cysteine
Liver transplant
Correct hypoglycaemia
PPIs
Risk factors for Chronic Liver Disease?
Alcohol
Hepatitis virus
Paracetamol OD
IVDU
Haemachromotosis
Alpha-1-antitrypsin def
Wilson’s disease
Primary prevention for Chronic Liver Disease?
Vaccinations
Legislation – dosages
Education re: alcohol
Secondary prevention for Chronic Liver Disease?
Vaccination
Needle exchange
Protocol for needle stick injuries
Tertiary prevention for Chronic Liver Disease?
Liver transplant
Antivirals
Diurectics for encephalitis
Risk factors for Coeliac disease?
White
Northern latitudes
HLA-DQ2/DQ8
Female
FHx
Primary prevention for Coeliac disease?
Proper labelling
Secondary prevention for Coeliac disease?
Education
Biopsy
Tertiary prevention for Coeliac disease?
Biopsy
GFD
Risk factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disorders?
FHx
Autoimmune cluster
Parental smoking
Caucasian, Ashkenazi Jews
Lack of smoking (UC)
Secondary prevention for Inflammatory Bowel Disorders?
Alcohol avoidance
Smoking cessation
Tertiary prevention for Inflammatory Bowel Disorders?
Steroids
Smoking cessation
5-ASA
Methotrexate, azathioprine, 6-MP
Antibiotics
Antidiarrhoeals
Infliximab
Surgical resectioning
Risk factors for Infectious Diarrhoea?
Low SES
Contact with infected individuals
lack of clean drinking water
poor food hygiene
pregnancy
elderly/young
Primary prevention for Infectious Diarrhoea?
Purification of water
Vaccination
Proper waste treatment
Proper food hygiene
Secondary prevention for Infectious Diarrhoea?
Proper food hygiene
Hand washing
notification
Tertiary prevention for Infectious Diarrhoea?
Antibiotics
Antidiarrhea agents
Rehydration
Risk factors for Colorectal Cancer?
HNPCC, FAP
Smoking
Diet – high fat, meat, alcohol,
IBD
Age
Adenomatous polyps
Previous CRC, breast or gonadal cancers
Obesity
Sedentary lifestyle
Diabetes
Acromegaly
Genes – hMSH2, hMLH1
Primary prevention for Colorectal Cancer?
Patient education
National screening program (fecal occult)
Healthy lifestyle (diet/exer)
Secondary prevention for Colorectal Cancer?
Screening >50yo
Colonoscopy/biopsy
Diet
Weight loss
DRE
Virtual colonoscopy
CEA screening
Tertiary prevention for Colorectal Cancer?
Surgery
Chemo/radiotherapy
Palliation
Mets screening
Surveillance for re-occurrence
Risk factors for Lung Cancer?
Smoking
Urban centre
Occupational exposures
Other cancers
Radiation
Arsenic, chromium, nickel
HIV
Parenchymal scarring
Primary prevention for Lung Cancer?
OH&S
Legislation for smoking, asbestos
Anti-smoking campaigns
Age restrictions of smoking
Regulation on air pollution
Secondary prevention for Lung Cancer?
Smoking cessation
PPE – breathing apparatus
Removing risk factors
Tertiary prevention for Lung Cancer?
Treat paraneoplastic
Chemo/radio
surgery
Risk factors for Cervical Cancer?
Early age of sex
HPV infection (16,18)
Female
age
Primary prevention for Cervical Cancer?
Population screening
Population vaccination
Education
Secondary prevention for Cervical Cancer?
Screening
Colposcopy
Biopsy
Tertiary prevention for Cervical Cancer?
Chemo/radio
Surgery - hysterectomy
Risk factors for Breast Cancer?
Female
BRCA1/2
HRT/OCP
Primary prevention for Breast Cancer?
Population screening – mammograms
Promote self-screening
Education
Secondary prevention for Breast Cancer?
Mastectomy
Screening
Genetic testing
Tertiary prevention for Breast Cancer?
Lumpectomy
Mastectomy
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Aromatase inhibitor
tamoxifen
Risk factors for HIV/AIDS?
Unprotected sex
Other STIs
Multiple partners
IVDU
Drug/alcohol use
MSM
Vertical transmission
Primary prevention for HIV/AIDS?
Education – safe sex
Abstinence
Circumcision
legislation
Secondary prevention for HIV/AIDS?
Vaccination
Caesarean sections
Free condoms
Targeted education
Tertiary prevention for HIV/AIDS?
Antiretroviral therapy
Treat complications
Education
notification