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45 Cards in this Set

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culture
process that delivers the values of society through products or other media-making forms
high culture (NOT pop culture)
identified with "good taste" and often supported by wealthy patrons and coporate donors; is associated with fine art which is avaliable primarily in libraries, theaters, and museums. EX: ballet, symphony, art museums, and classic literature
low culture (pop culture)
massed produced, mass consumption. Aligned with the questionable tastes of the "masses" who enjoy the commerical "junk" circulated by the mass media EX: soap operas, rock and rap music, talk radio, comic books, monster truck pulls
folk culture
culture of the people for the people; generally local, considered more authentic (pop culture as well)
ideological side of pop culture
set of ideas put forth by a group of people
values; how values are obtained
principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile within a culture...we are socialized to our values and the media is also a channel values are distributed through
american values
pride, hard-working, security, competition, individualism, freedom, equality
propaganda analysis
deceptive distortion of information that is systematically spread EX: promoting the war
public opinion research
gathering information from diverse locations
EX: polling
social psychology study
studies how we learn and behave EX: TV Rating system
Marketing research
consumer habit studies; developed by advertisers
EX: show ratings (how well they are doing)
hypodermic-needle model/ critique
powerful media affecting a weak (passive audience)
Critique: there is not a completely passive audience; situational like education, age, personality
minimal effects model/ critque
(selective retention)look to media to helps re-confirm values that we already hold
Critique: media is not the only thing we're affected by; it does not explain broadly as a society
uses and gratification model/ critique
look to the media to satisfy emotional or intellectual needs
critique: flipping channels really seeking out fulfillment? does everyone have same needs?
agenda setting
the media is setting what should be focused on - tells us what to think about but not HOW to think about it
cultivation effect
heavy exposure of media distorts our views on reality (the mean world syndrome) - think world is dangerous/unfriendly
cultural approach to mass media
considers how individuals may interpret messages based on age, gender, ethnicity, education, occupation. major areas of cultural studies include gender studies, ethnic studies etc.
cultural approach to mass media (pros and cons)
Allows for freedom of interpretation and looks at broad effects of media and culture; some studies focus solely on textual meaning and ignore effects on audience (531)
marxist approach
those who control mode of production also control ideology
hegemony
Power - who has power/how mantianed? dominant over subordinate.
Ideology - dominant groups circulate their value beliefs - circulate them as common sense - subordinate groups go along (consensus)
conflict - continuous conflict when getting the subordinate consensus
negotiation
sometimes give-and-take between subordinate and dominant
resistance
subordinates resist dominant
EX: torn jeans
incorporation
some form of resistance becomes accepted by dominant groups EX: start selling pre-torn jeans
textual analysis
"close readings" looking for motifs, themes for cultural meaning
audience studies
(reader-response) looking at how audiences interpret them - looks at who controls meaning
political economy
focus on production and forces behind it. Umbrella term that refers to idea that all products and services are produced to serve political and economic purposes. concern with media ownership and increasing conglomeration of ownership. oligopoly*
oligopoly (part of political economy)
few businesses that control a certain service
military industrial entertainment complex
term used for the idea that a few companies control most of the media and other industries - therefore, those few companies have the power to shape our perception. control occurs across sectors...a company might have holdings that contract with the military, manufacture household goods and own a major television network
five potential effects on media
1)control perceptions -hype created
2)limit viewpoints
3) standardization
4) false choice - quanity does not mean diversity
5) leverage media interests -synergy*
synergy
one promoting products of another
EX: ABC promoting Disney
cultural imperialism
american popular culture shapes the cultures and identities of other nations.
cultural imperialism ties to manifest destiny
because of american economic dominance, globalization is seen as americanization which ties to the concept of manifest destiny
cultural imperialism critics and defenders
Defenders: foster debate/ challenge authority. Faster communication
Critics: hampers development of local culture. Encourages teenagers to disregard native culture
resistance to cultural imperialism
localization of products and practices
cultural influences not uni-directional
globalization not solely American takeover EX: Anime
semiotics
method of reading signs (ads, gestures, language itself, food, objects, clothes)
signification (semiotics based on)
how meanings are produced and put into circulation (including denotative and connotative meaning)
denotative/ connatative
D: dictionary definition
C: suggested or associated meaning of a word
Advertisers focusing on women
Men earn, women consume. For a woman to be a good wife and mother, she had to buy the right things.
stereotype (never fits someone completely)
standardized conception or image of a specific group. Those in power have the power to stereotype others (can evolve over time)
EX: dumb blonde
invisible stereotyping
can stereotype people by leaving them out, marginalizing them EX: leaving a gay couple out of an add for finding a romantic relationship
gender as a social construction and performance
It is a social construction based on messages received by families, media, social institutions such as schools and churches. Gender is performance, those who dont perform it correctly are "punished" in some kind of way
truth in advertising?
can there be truth in advertising? Truth campaign
Why news considered "special" in America culture?
first amendment - only media protected by the constitution
watchdog role - checks and balances system
fourth estate - three branches in govt, press serves as unofficial 4th branch
criteria of newsworthiness
criteria are result of professional socialization