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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where does the vertebral column extend?
From the cranium (skull) to the apen of the coccyx
What comprises the axial skeleton?
articulated bones of the cranium, vertebral column, ribs and sternum
How many/what kind of vertebrae
33 in all, 7 cervical, 12 throacic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacaral all fused to make the sacrum, and 4 coccygeal to form the coccyx
Where does significant motion of the back occur?
in the first 25 vertebrae, the five sacral are fused and so are the 4 coccyx
lumbosacral angle
occurs where L 5 meets with S 1 and is the largest angle (above 70 degrees)
Zygapophysial joints
where the vertebrate articulate and come together, these joints facilitate flexability through the vertebral column
What percent do the vertebrate make up of the column and what about the IV disks?
the IV disks are 25% and the bones are 75%
Which direction are the curves in the spine?
Cervical and lumbar are convex anteriorly and thoracic and sacral are concave anteriorly
Lordosis
increased curviture of the lumbar curviture "hollow back"
Kyphosis
incrased thoracic and sacral curviture (humpbacked)Dowager's hump
Primary curvitures
cervical and lumbar
Secondary curvitures
appear in the cervical region during fetal period but do not become apparent until infancy--maintained by differences in the IV disks
scoliosis
crooked or curved back because of rotation by vertebrae or additional partial vertebrae
What does a typical vertebrae consist of?
vertebral body, vertebral arch, and seven processes
Vertebral body
anterior, more massive part of the vertebrae
Epiphysial rim
on the periphery of the vertebrae body where there is a ring of smooth bone derived from anular epiphysis
Vertebral arch
formed by the right and left pedicles and the lamina
Pedicles
short, stout processes that join the vertebral arch to the vertebral body and project laterally to connect to the laminae
Laminae
flat sheets of bone that connect to the pedicle, these two sheets meet in the midline
Vertebral foramen
formed by the vertebral arch and the posterior surface of the vertebral body
What forms the vertebral canal?
The consecutive vertebral foramen, contains the spinal cord, meninges (protective membranes), fat, spinal nerve roots and vessels
Vertebral notches
formed by the projections from the body: inferior and superior vertebral notch
Intervertebral foramen
formed by the inferior and superior vertebral notches
What are the seven processes of the vertebrae?
Spinous process,2 transverse processes, articular processes (4-two superior and two inferior)
Spinous process
projects posteriorly (and usually inferiorly)from the vertebral arch at the junction of the laminae and overlaps with vertebrae below
Transverse processes (2)
project from the junctions of the pedicles and laminae
articular processes (4)
two superior and two inferior that bear an articular surface (facet-come together and form the zygopophysial (facet) joints)
Laminectomy
sergical excision of one or more spinous processes to provide access to the vertebral canal
Spondylolisthesis of L5
when L5 slips off of S1, and slides into the spinal cord, creating pressure on the spinal cord and causing back pain
spina bifida occulta
the laminae of L5 and/or S1 fail to fuse, no severe back problems
spina bifida cystica
one or more vertebral arches fail to develop; vertebral column grows on the outside of the body
Transverse foramina
the cervical vertebrae have a hole in the transverse process that allows the vertebral artery to pass through C1-C6
Atlas
C1, kidney shaped when viewed from above of below, superior articular facets form a joint with the occipital condyles; no spinous process or body
Axis
C2-strongest cervical vertebrae; projects a dens of atlas to pivot and turn the cranium
Vertebral body of cervical vertebrae
small and wider from side to side than anteroposteriorly, superior face is concave, inferior face is convex
Cervical vertebral foramen
large and triangular
Cervical transverse process
transverse foramina, small or absent in C7
Cervical articular processes
superior facets directed superoposteriorly , inferior facets directed inferioanteriorly
cervical spinous process
C3-C5 short and bifid, C6 is long but C7 is longer
C7
vertebra prominens
Thoracic vertebrae body
heart shaped, one or two facets for articulation witht he head of the ribs
Throacic vertebral foramen
circular and smaller than those in the cervical or lumbar region
Throacic transverse process
long and strong, posterolaterlly, length diminishes from T1 to T12
Thoracic Articular process
superior facets directed posteriorly and slightly laterally; inferior facets directed anteriorly and slightly medially
Thoracic Spinous processes
long, slopes posteroiferiorly, tip extends to one vertebrae below
Lumbar body
massive, kidney shaped when viewed superiorly
Lumbar vertebral foramen
triangular, larger than in thoracic and smaller than in cervical
Lumbar transverse process
long and slender, accessory process on posterior surface or base of each process
Lumbar articular process
superior facets directed posteromedially, inferior facets directed aneterolaterally; mammillary process on posterior surface of each superior articular process
Lumbar spinous process
short and sturdy, hatchet shaped
sacral transverse lines
where the five vertebrae fused
median sacral crest
fused spinous processes
intermediate sacral crest
formed by the fused articular processes
lateral sacral crests
fused tips of the transverse processes
sacral hiatus
inverted U shaped formed by the absence of laminae and spinous processes of S4 and S5; leads into the sacral canal
Joints of the vertebral bodies
symphyses (secondary cartilaginous joints) for weight bearing and strength
IV disk contains?
anulus fibrosus, a ring of concentric lamellae of fibrocartilage forming the circumference; nucleus pulposus, a gelatinous central mass
anulus fibrosis
the outer fibrous part of the IV disk (fibrocartilage); insert into the epiphysial rims; fibers of lamella run at right angles to adjacent ones
nucleus pulposus
gelatinous central mass of the IV disk; start out 88% water and then get dry and grainy-hurniates into the anulus fibrosis and causes back pain
IV disks are thickest in which region? thinnest?
Lumbar thickest and thinnest in superior thoracic region. they are thickest anteriorly in cervical and lumbar
Uncovertebral joints
b/t the unci of the bodies of the unci process of the C3-C6 vertebrae and the bevelled inferolateral surfaces of the vertebral bodies superior to them.
anterior longitudinal ligament ALL
connects the anteriolateral aspects of vertebral bodies with IV disks (C1 to the sacrum to the occipital bone)limits extension of the vertebral column
posterior longitudinal ligament PLL
runs within the vertebral canal along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies, prevents hyperflexion
sygopophysial joints (facet joints)
synovial joint b/t the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Each joint is surrounded by a joint (articular) capsule; permit gliding movements b/t the articular processes; innervated by the medial branches of the posterior rami of spinal nerves
ligamenta flava
yellow elastic fibrous tissue extending vertically from lamina above and below; resist abrupt flexion; helps restore hyperflexed and hyper extended movements back to their normal position
herniation of IV disks
occurs when the nucleus pulposus protrudes into the anulus fibrosis; usually occurs posteriolaterally, where the anulus is thin and does not recieve support from the longitudinal ligaments
sciatica
pain in the lower back and hip and radiating down the back of the thigh into the leg
Herniation of L4L5 causes effects where?
in the root of the L5 nerve
Interspinous ligaments
weak, almost membranous ligament that connects the spinous process
supraspinous ligament
strong and fibrous ligament that connects the spinous processes; this merges with the nuchal ligament, a strong ligament of the neck
Nuchal ligament
ligament of the neck that is the same thing as the supraspinous ligament. extends from the external occupital protuberance and posterior border of the forament magnum to the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae
intertransverse ligaments
connect adjacent transverse processes; skattered fibers in the cervical region and fibrous cords in the thoracic region, thin and membranous in the lumbar region
craniovertebral joints
atlanto occipital joints b/t the C1 and the occipital bone; atlantoaxial joints between C1 and C2
atlanto-occipital joint
bt the lateral masses of C1 and the occipital condyles; permit the nodding of the head in the yes and sideways tilting
Tuffier's line
connects the highest points of each iliac crest, is used by clinicians as a guide for the site of lumbar puncture (near L4 or L5)
lamina
borad base for the spinous process
scapula location
between the 2nd and 7th thoracic certebrae
uncinate processes
lateral lip of the bone lock with one another at uncovertebreal joints
odontoid process
spicule of bone that was the body of C1 and how is the rod on C2 about which C1 rotates
Where does the spinal cord end?
T12 to L1
sacrum comes from
sacred-thought it was the only bone that did not decompose
Where do you inject the needle for numb the spine?
in the sacral hiatus which is the 4th and 5th sacrum
sacroiliad joint
the joint b/t sacrum and coccyx
What innervates the zygapophyseal joints?
the spinal nerves of the doral rami.
Batson's plexus
elaborate venous system found in the vertebral foramen providing movement of blood to the brain from the pelvis (prostate cancer spreads to the brain this way)
Trapezius muscle
attached to the base of the skull and to the spinus process of T12; attaches to the scapula and clavicle; shrugging the shoulders, innervated by the 11th cranial nerve (spinal accessory)
Latissmus dorsi muscle
arises from the lower half of the thoracic vertebrae down to the sacrum and ilium. attaches to the lumbodorsal fascia and ends by attaching to the humerous. Innervated by a spinal nerve
Serratus posterior inferior
inferior to the latissmus dorsi
PAO-Posterior Atalanto-Occipital Membrane
membrane that connects C1 to the occipital bone
Alar ligament
extend from the sides of the dens on C2 to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum (they attach the cranium to C1)
cruciate ligament
the transverse ligament plus the longitudinal bands that come together and look like a cross in the back of the neck.
Tectoral Membrane
continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament across the median atlantoaxial joint through the foramen magnum to teh central floor of the cranial cavity
Four movements of the vertebral column
flexion (front), extension (lean back), lateral flexion (bending) and rotation (torsion)limited to the compressability of the IV disks
extrinsic back muscles
include superficial and intermediate muscles that produce and control limb and respiratory movements, respectively
intrinsic back muscles
specifically act on the vertebral column producing its movements and maintaining its posture