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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DIRECTORY
A database that arranges terms in a hierarchyby subject matter, allowing a search to procede from general to specific topics.
DOWNLOAD
Copying information (text, graphics, numerical data from a remote Internet site to a personal computer.
ELECTRONIC DATABASE
A collection of information(of any type) stored on an electromagnetic medium that can be accessed and examined by certain computer programs.
SEARCH ENGINE
A computer program that visits Web pages on the Internet and looks for those containing particular directories or words.
SEARCH TERM
A word or phrase entered into a computer program( a search engine) that looks through Web pages on the Internet for those that contain the word or phrase.
ACCRETION MEASURES
Measures of phenomena through indirect observation of the accumulation of materials.
COVERT OBSERVATION
Observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed.
DIRECT OBSERVATION
Actual observation of behavior.
EROSION MEASURES
Measures of phenomena through indirect observation of selective wear of some material.
FIELD STUDY
Observation in a natural setting.
INDIRECT OBSERVATION
Observation of physical traces of behavior.
INFORMANT
Person who helps a researcher employing participant observation methods interpret the activities and behavior of the informant and the group to which the informant belongs.
INFORMED CONSENT
procedures that inform potential research subjects about the proposed reasearch in which they are being asked to participate. The priciple that researchers must obtain the freely given consent of human subjects before they participate in a research project.
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD
Panel to which researchers must submit descriptions of proposed research involving human subjects for the purpose of ethics review.
OVERT OBSERVATION
Observation in which those being observed are informed of the observer's presence and purpose.
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
Observation in which the observer becomes a regular participant in the activities of those being observed.
STRUCTURED OBSERVATION
Systematic observation and recording of the incidence of specific behaviors.
UNSTRUCTURED OBSERVATION
Observation in which all behavior and activities are recorded.
CONTENT ANALYSIS
A procedure by which verbal, nonquantative records are transformed into quantative data.
EPISODIC RECORD
The portion of the written record that is not part of a regular, ongoing record-keeping enterprise.
INTERCODER RELIABILITY
Demonstration that multiple analysts, following the same content analysis procedure, agree and obtain the same measurements.
RUNNING RECORD
The portion of the written record that is enduring and covers an extensive period of time.
WRITTEN RECORD
Documents, records, statistics, manuscripts, and other recorded materials available and useful for empirical research.
CLUSTER SAMPLE
A probability sample that is used when no list of elements exists. The sampling frame initially consists of clusters of elements.
CONFIDENCE LEVEL
The degree of belief that an estimated range of values more specifically, a high or low value includes or covers the population paremeter.
CONVENIENCE SAMPLE
A nonprobability sample in which the selection of elements is determined by the researcher's convenience.
DISPROPORTIONATE SAMPLE
A stratified sample in which elements sharing a characteristic are underrepresented or overrepresented in the sample.
ELEMENT
A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis.
ESTIMATOR
A statistic based on sample observations that is used to estimate the numerical value of a population characteristic or parameter.
EXPECTED VALUE
The mean or avereage value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population.
NONPROBABILITY SAMPLE
A sample for which each element in the total population has an unknown probability of being selected.
POPULATION
All the cases or observations covered be a hypothesis; all the units of analysis to which a hypothesis applies.
POPULATION PARAMETER
The incidence of a characteristic or attribute in a population.(not a sample)
PROBABILITY SAMPLE
A sample for which each element in the total population has a known probability of being selected.
PROPORTIONATE SAMPLE
A probability sample that draws elements from a stratified population at a rate proportional to the size of the samples.
PURPOSIVE SAMPLE
A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation.
QUOTA SAMPLE
A nonprobability sample in which elements are sampled in proportion to their representation in the population
RANDOM DIGIT DIALING
A procedure used to improve the representativeness of telephone samples by giving both listed and unlisted numbers a chance of selection.
RANDOM NUMBERS TABLE
A list of random numbers in tabular form.
RANDOM START
Selection of a number at random to determine where to start selecting elements in a systematic sample.
SAMPLE
A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specific population.
SAMPLE BIAS
The bias that occurs whenever some elements of a population are systematically excluded from a sample. It is usually due to an incomplete sampling frame or a nonprobability method of selecting elements.
SAMPLE STATISTIC
The estimator of a poulation characteristic or attribute that is calculated from sample data.
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION
A theoretical(nonobserved) distribution of sample statistics calculated on samples of size N.
SAMPLING ERROR
The confidence level and the margin of error taken together.
SAMPLING FRACTION
The proportion of the population included in a sample.
SAMPLING FRAME
The population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population of interest to a study.
SAMPLING INTERVAL
The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size.
SAMPLING UNIT
The entity listed in a sampling frame. It may be the same as an element, or it may be a group or a cluster of elements.
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLE
A probability sample in which each element has an equal chance of being selected.
SNOWBALL SAMPLE
A sample in which respondents are asked to identify additional members of a population.
STANDARD ERROR
The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution.
STATISTICAL INFERENCE
Making probability statements about populations parameters and characteristics based on sample statistics and the use of statistical theory.
STRATIFIED SAMPLE
A probability sample in which elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped, and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group's representation in the total population.
STRATUM
A subgroup of a population that shares one or more characteristics.
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLE
a probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals.
WEIGHTING FACTOR
A mathematical factor used to make a disproportionate sample representative.
AMBIGUOUS QUESTION
A question containing a concept that is not clearly defined.
BRANCHING QUESTION
A question that sorts respondence into subgroups and directs these subgroups to different parts of the questionnaire.
CLOSED-ENDED QUESTION
A question with response alternatives provided.
DOUBLE-BARRELED QUESTION
A question that is really two questions in one.
ELITE INTERVIEWING
Interviewing respondents in a nonstandardized, individualized manner.
FILTER QUESTION
A question used to screen respondents so that subsequent questions will be asked only of certain respondents for whom the questions are appropriate.
FOCUSED INTERVIEW
Semistructured or flexible interview schedule used when interviewing elites.
INTERVIEW DATA
observations derived from written or verbal questioning of the respondents by the researcher.
INTERVIEWER BIAS
The interviewers influence on the respondents answers; an example of reactivity
LEADING QUESTION
A question that encourages the respondent to choose a particular response.
MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE
A survey instrument mailed to the respondent for completion and return.
OPEN-ENDED QUESTION
A question with no response alternatives provided for the respondent.
PERSONAL INTERVIEW
Face to face questioning of the respondent.
PUSH POLL
A poll the object of which is not to collect information but to feed(often) false and damaging information about a candidate or cause.
QUESTION ORDER EFFECT
The effesct of respnces of question placement within a questionnaire.
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
The physical layout and packaging of a qustionnaire,
RANDOMIZED RESPONSE TECHNIQUE(RRT)
A method of obtaining accurate answers to sensitive questions that protects the respondence privacy.
RESPONSE RATE
The proportion of respondents selected for participation in a survey who actually participate.
RESPONSE QUALITY
The extent to which responces provide accurate and complete information.
RESPONSE SET
The pattern of responding to a series of questions in a similar fashion without careful reading of each question.
SINGLE-SIDED QUESTION
A question with only one substantive alternative provided for the respondent.
SURVEY INTRUMENT
The schedule of questions to be asked of the respondents.
TELEPHONE INTERVIEW
the questioning of the respondent via telephone.
TWO-SIDED QUESTION
A question with two substantive alternatives provided for the respondent.
BAR CHART
A graphic display of the data in a frequency or percentage distribution.
CENTRAL TENDENCY
The most frequent, middle, or central value in a frequency distribution.
CUMULATIVE PROPORTION
The total proportion of observations at or below a value in frequency distribution.
DATA MATRIX
An array of rows and columns that stores values.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC
The mathematical summary of measurements for one variable.
DICHOTOMOUS VARIABLE
A variable with only two catagories or values.
DISPERSION
The distribution of data values around the most frequent, middle , or central value.
ENUMERATIVE TABLE
A table listing the observed values of a variable.
FREQUENCY CURVE
A line graph summarizing a frequency distribution.
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION(f)
The number of observations per value or catagory of a variable.
INTERQUARTILE RANGE
The middle fifty percent of observations.
LINE DIAGRAM
Another name for a frequency curve.
MEAN
The sum of the values of a variable divided by the number of values.
MEAN DEVIATION
A measure of dispersion of data points for interval- and ratio-level data.
MEDIAN
The category or value above and below which one-half of the observations lie.
MODE
The category with the greatest frequency of observations.
NEGATIVELY SKEWED
A distribution of values in which fewer observations lie the left of the middle value and those observations are fairly distant from the mean.
NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
A distribution defined by a mathematical formula and the graph of which has a symmetrical, bell shape; in which the mean, mode,and median coincide; and in which a fixed proportion of observations lies between the mean and any distance from the mean measured in terms of the standard deviation.
PIE DIAGRAM
A circular graphic display of a frequency distribution.
POSITIVELY SKEWED
A distribution of values in which fewer observations lie to the right of the middle value and those observations are fairly distant from the mean.
RANGE
The distance between the highest and lowest values or the range of categories into which observations fall.
RELATIVE FREQUENCY
Percentage or proportion of total number of observations in a frequency distribution that have a particular value.
STANDARD DEVIATION
A measure of dispersion of data points about the mean for interval- and ratio-level data.
STANDARD ERROR
The standard deviation of sample means about the mean of sample means.
STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation and variance of one.
STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION
An arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurence.
UNIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS
The analysis of a single variable.
VARIANCE
A measure of dispersion of data points about the mean for interval-and ratio-level data.
Z SCORE
The number of standard deviations by which a score deviates from the mean score.