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110 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
DIRECTORY

A database that arranges terms in a hierarchyby subject matter, allowing a search to procede from general to specific topics.


DOWNLOAD

Copying information (text, graphics, numerical data from a remote Internet site to a personal computer.


ELECTRONIC DATABASE

A collection of information(of any type) stored on an electromagnetic medium that can be accessed and examined by certain computer programs.


SEARCH ENGINE

A computer program that visits Web pages on the Internet and looks for those containing particular directories or words.


SEARCH TERM

A word or phrase entered into a computer program( a search engine) that looks through Web pages on the Internet for those that contain the word or phrase.


ACCRETION MEASURES

Measures of phenomena through indirect observation of the accumulation of materials.


COVERT OBSERVATION

Observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed.


DIRECT OBSERVATION

Actual observation of behavior.


EROSION MEASURES

Measures of phenomena through indirect observation of selective wear of some material.


FIELD STUDY

Observation in a natural setting.


INDIRECT OBSERVATION

Observation of physical traces of behavior.


INFORMANT

Person who helps a researcher employing participant observation methods interpret the activities and behavior of the informant and the group to which the informant belongs.


INFORMED CONSENT

procedures that inform potential research subjects about the proposed reasearch in which they are being asked to participate. The priciple that researchers must obtain the freely given consent of human subjects before they participate in a research project.


INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD

Panel to which researchers must submit descriptions of proposed research involving human subjects for the purpose of ethics review.


OVERT OBSERVATION

Observation in which those being observed are informed of the observer's presence and purpose.


PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

Observation in which the observer becomes a regular participant in the activities of those being observed.


STRUCTURED OBSERVATION

Systematic observation and recording of the incidence of specific behaviors.


UNSTRUCTURED OBSERVATION

Observation in which all behavior and activities are recorded.


CONTENT ANALYSIS

A procedure by which verbal, nonquantative records are transformed into quantative data.


EPISODIC RECORD

The portion of the written record that is not part of a regular, ongoing recordkeeping enterprise.


INTERCODER RELIABILITY

Demonstration that multiple analysts, following the same content analysis procedure, agree and obtain the same measurements.


RUNNING RECORD

The portion of the written record that is enduring and covers an extensive period of time.


WRITTEN RECORD

Documents, records, statistics, manuscripts, and other recorded materials available and useful for empirical research.


CLUSTER SAMPLE

A probability sample that is used when no list of elements exists. The sampling frame initially consists of clusters of elements.


CONFIDENCE LEVEL

The degree of belief that an estimated range of values more specifically, a high or low value includes or covers the population paremeter.


CONVENIENCE SAMPLE

A nonprobability sample in which the selection of elements is determined by the researcher's convenience.


DISPROPORTIONATE SAMPLE

A stratified sample in which elements sharing a characteristic are underrepresented or overrepresented in the sample.


ELEMENT

A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis.


ESTIMATOR

A statistic based on sample observations that is used to estimate the numerical value of a population characteristic or parameter.


EXPECTED VALUE

The mean or avereage value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population.


NONPROBABILITY SAMPLE

A sample for which each element in the total population has an unknown probability of being selected.


POPULATION

All the cases or observations covered be a hypothesis; all the units of analysis to which a hypothesis applies.


POPULATION PARAMETER

The incidence of a characteristic or attribute in a population.(not a sample)


PROBABILITY SAMPLE

A sample for which each element in the total population has a known probability of being selected.


PROPORTIONATE SAMPLE

A probability sample that draws elements from a stratified population at a rate proportional to the size of the samples.


PURPOSIVE SAMPLE

A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation.


QUOTA SAMPLE

A nonprobability sample in which elements are sampled in proportion to their representation in the population


RANDOM DIGIT DIALING

A procedure used to improve the representativeness of telephone samples by giving both listed and unlisted numbers a chance of selection.


RANDOM NUMBERS TABLE

A list of random numbers in tabular form.


RANDOM START

Selection of a number at random to determine where to start selecting elements in a systematic sample.


SAMPLE

A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specific population.


SAMPLE BIAS

The bias that occurs whenever some elements of a population are systematically excluded from a sample. It is usually due to an incomplete sampling frame or a nonprobability method of selecting elements.


SAMPLE STATISTIC

The estimator of a poulation characteristic or attribute that is calculated from sample data.


SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION

A theoretical(nonobserved) distribution of sample statistics calculated on samples of size N.


SAMPLING ERROR

The confidence level and the margin of error taken together.


SAMPLING FRACTION

The proportion of the population included in a sample.


SAMPLING FRAME

The population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population of interest to a study.


SAMPLING INTERVAL

The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size.


SAMPLING UNIT

The entity listed in a sampling frame. It may be the same as an element, or it may be a group or a cluster of elements.


SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLE

A probability sample in which each element has an equal chance of being selected.


SNOWBALL SAMPLE

A sample in which respondents are asked to identify additional members of a population.


STANDARD ERROR

The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution.


STATISTICAL INFERENCE

Making probability statements about populations parameters and characteristics based on sample statistics and the use of statistical theory.


STRATIFIED SAMPLE

A probability sample in which elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped, and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group's representation in the total population.


STRATUM

A subgroup of a population that shares one or more characteristics.


SYSTEMATIC SAMPLE

a probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals.


WEIGHTING FACTOR

A mathematical factor used to make a disproportionate sample representative.


AMBIGUOUS QUESTION

A question containing a concept that is not clearly defined.


BRANCHING QUESTION

A question that sorts respondence into subgroups and directs these subgroups to different parts of the questionnaire.


CLOSEDENDED QUESTION

A question with response alternatives provided.


DOUBLEBARRELED QUESTION

A question that is really two questions in one.


ELITE INTERVIEWING

Interviewing respondents in a nonstandardized, individualized manner.


FILTER QUESTION

A question used to screen respondents so that subsequent questions will be asked only of certain respondents for whom the questions are appropriate.


FOCUSED INTERVIEW

Semistructured or flexible interview schedule used when interviewing elites.


INTERVIEW DATA

observations derived from written or verbal questioning of the respondents by the researcher.


INTERVIEWER BIAS

The interviewers influence on the respondents answers; an example of reactivity


LEADING QUESTION

A question that encourages the respondent to choose a particular response.


MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE

A survey instrument mailed to the respondent for completion and return.


OPENENDED QUESTION

A question with no response alternatives provided for the respondent.


PERSONAL INTERVIEW

Face to face questioning of the respondent.


PUSH POLL

A poll the object of which is not to collect information but to feed(often) false and damaging information about a candidate or cause.


QUESTION ORDER EFFECT

The effesct of respnces of question placement within a questionnaire.


QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

The physical layout and packaging of a qustionnaire,


RANDOMIZED RESPONSE TECHNIQUE(RRT)

A method of obtaining accurate answers to sensitive questions that protects the respondence privacy.


RESPONSE RATE

The proportion of respondents selected for participation in a survey who actually participate.


RESPONSE QUALITY

The extent to which responces provide accurate and complete information.


RESPONSE SET

The pattern of responding to a series of questions in a similar fashion without careful reading of each question.


SINGLESIDED QUESTION

A question with only one substantive alternative provided for the respondent.


SURVEY INTRUMENT

The schedule of questions to be asked of the respondents.


TELEPHONE INTERVIEW

the questioning of the respondent via telephone.


TWOSIDED QUESTION

A question with two substantive alternatives provided for the respondent.


BAR CHART

A graphic display of the data in a frequency or percentage distribution.


CENTRAL TENDENCY

The most frequent, middle, or central value in a frequency distribution.


CUMULATIVE PROPORTION

The total proportion of observations at or below a value in frequency distribution.


DATA MATRIX

An array of rows and columns that stores values.


DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC

The mathematical summary of measurements for one variable.


DICHOTOMOUS VARIABLE

A variable with only two catagories or values.


DISPERSION

The distribution of data values around the most frequent, middle , or central value.


ENUMERATIVE TABLE

A table listing the observed values of a variable.


FREQUENCY CURVE

A line graph summarizing a frequency distribution.


FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION(f)

The number of observations per value or catagory of a variable.


INTERQUARTILE RANGE

The middle fifty percent of observations.


LINE DIAGRAM

Another name for a frequency curve.


MEAN

The sum of the values of a variable divided by the number of values.


MEAN DEVIATION

A measure of dispersion of data points for interval and ratiolevel data.


MEDIAN

The category or value above and below which onehalf of the observations lie.


MODE

The category with the greatest frequency of observations.


NEGATIVELY SKEWED

A distribution of values in which fewer observations lie the left of the middle value and those observations are fairly distant from the mean.


NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

A distribution defined by a mathematical formula and the graph of which has a symmetrical, bell shape; in which the mean, mode,and median coincide; and in which a fixed proportion of observations lies between the mean and any distance from the mean measured in terms of the standard deviation.


PIE DIAGRAM

A circular graphic display of a frequency distribution.


POSITIVELY SKEWED

A distribution of values in which fewer observations lie to the right of the middle value and those observations are fairly distant from the mean.


RANGE

The distance between the highest and lowest values or the range of categories into which observations fall.


RELATIVE FREQUENCY

Percentage or proportion of total number of observations in a frequency distribution that have a particular value.


STANDARD DEVIATION

A measure of dispersion of data points about the mean for interval and ratiolevel data.


STANDARD ERROR

The standard deviation of sample means about the mean of sample means.


STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

Normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation and variance of one.


STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION

An arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurence.


UNIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS

The analysis of a single variable.


VARIANCE

A measure of dispersion of data points about the mean for intervaland ratiolevel data.


Z SCORE

The number of standard deviations by which a score deviates from the mean score.
