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35 Cards in this Set

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effective party
number of parties that control or recieve the majority if not all of the votes
what do parties do?
1. socialize and recruit leaders
2. create excitement for regime
3. aggregate interests
4. create interests for the social group
elections...
1. create civic involvement and disseminate information
2. build legitimacy
3. build support
4. choose representatives
parlimentary systems (+/-)
+ efficient
+ clear lines of responsibility
- divided cabinet -> tagedy of the commons/collective action problem
- unstable
- few protections for minorities
presidential systems (+/-)
+ provide checks on legislative power
+ are responsible to people and discipline legislature
+ fixed term/popularly elected
- not efficient
- no clear lines of responsibility
- monopoly on power over policy
-recruitment of the inexperienced
- hard to make comprehensive policies
democracy and growth rates
1.protection of property
2.inhibits immediate consumption
3.inhibits autonomy of dictators
majoritarian (westminster)
1.parlimentary
2.holds government accountable
+ efficient, clear responsibility and accountability, pluralist
-non-independent bank, unstable, less opinions, corruptable
consensus (proportional)
1. presidential
2. people can say they have representation
+stable, hard to corrupt, independent banks, good for minorities, checks on power
-not efficient, hard to hold accountable, extremsim, intransitivity
legislature/executive (5)
1.type of government
2.executive/legislative relations
3.party system
4.electoral system
5.interest articulation
federal/ unitary (5)
1.bicameralism
2.judicial review
3.centralization
4.constitutionalism
5.central bank independence
district magnitude
number of seats a district holds
primortial vs instrumental view
primorital-parties represent interests

instrumental-people use parties to gain power in office
iron law of oligarchy
leaders develop different views then their party as they develop views that will keep them in power
the mechanical effect
how votes translate into seats in the legislature...SMDP favors large parties
duverger's law
SMDP: single member district plurailty (2 parties)

Proportional representation: multiple parties
motivation of leaders
office seeking: want to gain and maintain power

policy seeking: want to achieve a specific policy platform
selectorate
the amount of people in a society that could possibly select the leader
winning coalition
the participants of the selectorate whose support is needed for the leader to gain and maintain power
public good
1. non-excludable
2. joint in supply (as more use it, its amount doesn't diminish)
private benefits
gifts, money, power given to the leader's individual supporters
winning coalition size...
-big w, or big w/s ratio leads to the leader grating public goods
-small w, or small w/s ratio leads to the leader granting private benefits to supporters
loyalty norm
when the w is small, and the s is big, the members of the w could be easily replaced so they stay very loyal in order to retain their private benefits...leaders can buy support cheaply
head of government vs. head of state
1.head of government: runs political system
2.head of state: ceremonial figure
-infused in presidential
presidential vs parlimentary
-presidential: encourages antagonism and mutual independence
-parlimentary: encourages reconciliation and mutual dependence
least minimal winning coalition
coalition such that the surplus is smallest or non-existant (CDU and Greens)
grand coalition vs minority coalition
-grand coalition: largest surplus
-minority coalition: negative surplus
minimal connected winning coalition
coalition with small surplus and that is next to one another on a policy continum (CDU, FDP)...most likely cabinet
delegate vs. agent
-delegate: choose policy based exactly on what electoral district would do
-agent:take authority and turn it into responsibility, and make best decision for district
instrumental voting
care about outcome and think their vote counts
-paradox of participation -> a lot vote so individuals dont matter-> no one sould vote->therefore an individual's vote matters a lot
expressive voting
care about outcome and want people to know it
-said that this is how parties formed
consumptive voting
-its an event
-civic duty
-its the right thing to do
-ritual with benefits unrelated to the outcome
defensive voting
-coerced into voting
-avoiding punishment
-compulsory voting (australia and soviet union)
coefficient
slope
a 1 unit change in x leads to a ? change in y
standard error
measure of confidence in the coefficient
(2x SE > coefficient, the coefficient is significant)
linear additive vs multiplicitive interaction
linear: y = mx+ b
multiplicitive:
y = mx + mx +m(x X x)+b
(use when context matters)