Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Political Participation
Any activity that seeks to influence public decisions
Hierarchical
Arranged in order of increase or decrease to a characteristic.
Cumulative
To increase by adding on instead of increasing by substituting new activities for old ones.
Public socialization
The process of learning about politics as we learn our language and culture.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
The rank one has in a hierarchy determined by occupational prestige, income, education, and wealth.
Lobbying
Personally contacting a public official to influence a decision.
Grassroots lobbying
Attempting to influence others to contact a public offical personally.
Astroturf Lobbying
The use of various techniques by public relations firms to simulate lobying by individuals. It is regarded as atrificial grassroots lobbying.
Public hearing
A meeting at which decision makers listen to the public in order to gather information.
Appointmenteering
An attempt to influence appointments to public office.
Electioneering
A wide range of activities involved in getting someone elected to public office.
Retail Politics
Personal contact with citizens by telephone or door-to-door canvassing in order to mobilize them to vote or participate in some other way.
Wholesale politics
Using the mass mesia to reach voters.
Demonstrating
Group attempts to bring public attention to an issue and making public officials aware of the intensity of group feelings.
Litigating
Using the legal system to influence public policy.
Salience
To stand out and be strikingly conspicuous; prominent.
Powell's paradox
Despite the fact that they are more predisposed to participate and that they participate in some activities more than people in other countries, Americans vote at a lower rate than do citizens in other industrial democracies.
Collective bargaining
The right of workers, after winning a majority in an organizing election, to bargain with management on working conditions such as safety, wages, and benefits.
Free rider
individuals who enjoy collective benefits without making a contribution to obtaining or defending them.
Collective benefits
Benefits we enjoy whether we helped obtain them or not.
Interest Group
A formal organization through which individuals seek to promote or defend a shared interest by influencing public policy
Public Policy
Decisions that determine what government does, or does not, do.
Political party
any group, however loosely organized, seeking to elect government officeholders under a given label.
primary election
an election in which voters choose a party's nominees for public office
closed primary
A party nominating election (primary) in which only registered members of the party can participate.
open primary
A party nominating election (primary) in which any qualified voter can participate regardless of party affliction.
party identification
A voter's sense of psycological attachment to a political party
runoff primary
An election between the top two candidates when no candidate recieves a majority in a primary election. The runoff ensures that the eventual nominee will have recieves a majority vote.
General Election
Statewide elections held of the first Tuesday after the first Nonday of November of even numbered years. These elections determine who will fill government offices.
Special election
Any election that is called at a time that does not conform to the regular election calendar.
Bond election
An election for the purpose of cbtaining voter approval for a government's going into debt by selling bonds to private investors.
Recall
An electoral procedure for removing an elected official from office before the end of his or her specified term.
Referendum
An election that allows voters to determine a policy issue directly.
Initiative
A procedure by which individuals can propose legislation by gathering a specified number of signatures and submitting a petition to a designated agency.
Suffrage
The right to vote
Property qualification
A requirement that an individual must own property to vote.
White primary
A type of nominating election used by the Democratic party in Texas to prohibit African American from voting to select the pary's candidates for office.
Poll tax
A voting requirement requiring the payment of a tax in order to become eligible to vote. Used as a device to discriminate against minority groups in voting, poll taxes were made unconstitutional by the twenty-Fourth Amendment.
The Electoral party
The elected psrty's officials, employees, volunteers, and activists who attend party conventions.
Precenct Chair
The permanent party official at the precinct level.