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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 3 reasons that the US was the first nation to be able to break with monarchy and embrace republicanism?
Geography (far from England), Home Rule (British gave Americans power to manage their own domestic affairs), & because they had already been electing their leaders and hold them accountable
How did elective assemblies that the colonies organized work?
they where use to elect leaders and they eventually had the power to make law and levy taxes
How did Britain fit in to the elective assemblies?
They where appointed but often accommodated popular opinion because their pay was tied to the assemblies
How did the assemblies effect the constitution later?
The framers saw that popularly elected legislatures in control of money could dominate other parts of government
What were additional benefits of self governance in the colonies?
the colonies became experienced in negotiating agreements and constitution writing
What were disadvantages of home rule (self-governace)?
they had no experience in regulating commerce, no military & little foreign policy experience
What was the Albany Congress?
7 colonies met in NY in 1754 to creat the first serious plan for a national government
What did Franklin's Plan for the Union include?
an army for defense, a popularly elected legislature, and an executive named by the King
Why didn't this plan get support?
The colonies didn't want to provide for their own defense when Britain was providing defense for free
What led to the fall of Home Rule?
British gov. was broke and wanted the colonies to help with defense, the British were the most heavily tax country in the world, in order to raise money they started taxing even more
What was the most agressive challenge to Home Rule?
The Stamp Act
What was the Stamp Act?
law imposed tax on anything printed, including documents, licenses, land titles, newspapers, playing cards
Before the Stamp Act did Americans pay taxes?
Yes, but they were primarily for local and service oriented
What action did the colonies take in regards to the Stamp Act?
They convene an assembly of all the colonies and drafted a unified response condemning the Stamp Act
What action did ordinary citizens take in regards to the Stamp Act?
they rebelled by actions like the Boston Tea Party
Why did the Second Continental Congress act as a national government?
Because war had broke out and the americans needed coordination
What was the first action of the Second Continental Congress?
Instructed the conventions to reconstitute themselves at state governments
What kind of state governments did most states adopt?
Bicameral Legislature, with governorships
What prompted Americans to seriously considered independence from Britain?
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
Who was Richard Henry Lee?
In June 1776, he called for the creation of a new nation separate from Britain
What did congress do about Lee's proposal?
they referred it to a committe with instructions to draft the proper resolution
Who wrote the original draft of the declaration?
Thomas Jefferson
What was the next step taken after the declaration of independence?
The continental congress worked out the details of the new government and drafted the Articles of Confederation
How long did it take to ratify the Articles of Confederation?
5 years
What type of government did we have under the Articles of Confederation?
a highly decentralized gov. which gets it authority from the states not citizens, no judiciary or executive branch
What was required to change major laws or to make changes to the Articles of Confederation?
each state got one vote, constitutionals changes by endorsement by 9 or 13 states
How were army troops recruited?
each state was responsible to recruit and outfit troops and congress attempted to coordinate resources
What problem arose during the war?
the states were reluctant to contribute their fair share, and the army began to deteriorate
What did congress do to fix the deteriorating army?
they instructed states to supply their troops directly
Was congress being pressured to take on greater authority in regards to the war?
What did Washington advise to fund the armies?
he thought congress should adopt a "new plan" which would provide adequate federal authority to wage war
What did Hamilton advise to fund the armies?
he said congress has emergency authority to raise funds from an independent source
How did the states feel about the war efforts?
States didn't mind doing their part but they wanted security that the other states would also do their part.
What was the result of the Hartford Convention?
called on Congress to grant itself the power to tax
What did Rhode Island do?
In 1781, Rhode Island vetoed a bill allowing congress to levy taxes
What was Frances position during the war?
they recognized the US as a country and supported the American war effort
What happened when Washington along with French soldiers beat Cornwallis at Yorktown?
British soldiers sued for peace and the American momentum for reform of the national government was lost.
What problems did the Americans face now when the war was over?
war torn economy, trade barriers and popular discontent
What was Shay's rebellion?
Angry farmers marched to Springfield, Mass. & rebelled against unsettled economic conditions and against politicians and laws which were grossly unfair to farmers and working people.
How was Shay's Rebellion viewed?
It was seen as a major threat to the union of the 13 states
What happened because of the economic unrest and unfair laws?
55 delegates met in Philadelphia to make a few changes to the Articles of Confederation
What hidden agenda did James Madison and others have?
They wanted to scrap the Articles and start over ("Vices of the Political System of the United State")
When did the convention meet?
May 25, 1787
What ideas of John Locke influenced the constitution?
popular sovereignty
Who proposed the Virginia Plan (Large States)?
James Madison wrote it and Edmund Randolph presented it to the convention
What was the Virginia Plan?
calls for two-house congress which makes laws, overrule state laws, choses the executive & the judiciary
How is the legislature selected under the Virginia Plan?
the lower chamber is apportioned by population and the upper chamber is selected by the lower chamber from a lists created by each state
Why was there so much opposition to the Virginia Plan?
the plan weakened states rights and power
Who proposed the New Jersey Plan?
The small states and presented by William Patterson
What was the New Jersey Plan?
calls for a one-house legislature with one vote for one state, congress make laws & judiciary with limited powers
What major problem came up?
Couldn't agree on the legislature of either plan, sent plan to a congressional committee work out differences
What was the Great Compromise (Connecticut Plan)?
Compromise of the New Jersey Plan & Virginia plan that called for an uppper chamber which would have 2 members from each state and a lower house representation based on the population of each state