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33 Cards in this Set

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s an ideology that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community. That community may be the family unit, but it can also be understood in a far wider sense of personal interaction, of geographical location, or of shared history.
social liberals
Social liberalism is the belief that liberalism should include social justice. It differs from classical liberalism in that it believes the legitimate role of the state includes addressing economic and social issues such as unemployment, health care, and education while simultaneously expanding civil rights. Under social liberalism, the good of the community is viewed as harmonious with the freedom of the individual
a Political Ideology is a certain ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths, or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely, while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them.
political culture
Political culture is the traditional orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, affecting their perceptions of political legitimacy.
PAC's ideal democratic citizen
civic participation
rational ignorance
occurs when the cost of educating oneself on an issue exceeds the potential benefit that the knowledge would provide
rational choice
In general, people will choose the object that provides the greatest reward at the lowest cost.
gender gap
the differences between women and men, especially as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes.
marriage gap
As part of the marriage gap, unmarried people are "considerably more liberal" than married people.[2] With little variation between professed moderates, married people respond to be conservative 9 percent more, and single people respond to be liberal 10 percent more.[3] Married people tend to hold political opinions that differ from those of people who have never married.
push polls
A push poll is a political campaign technique in which an individual or organization attempts to influence or alter the view of respondents under the guise of conducting a poll. In a push poll, large numbers of respondents are contacted, and little or no effort is made to collect and analyze response data
wedge issue
A wedge issue is a social or political issue, often of a divisive or otherwise controversial nature, which splits apart or creates a "wedge" in the support base of one political group.
valence issue
An issue that is uniformly liked or disliked among the electorate, as opposed to a position issue on which opinion is divided
swing voters
is a voter who may not be affiliated with a particular political party (Independent) or who will vote across party lines.
open primary
A registered voter may vote in any party primary regardless of his own party affiliation. When voters do not register with a party before the primary, it is called a pick-a-party primary because the voter can select which party's primary he or she wishes to vote in on election day.
framing is influenced by the background of a context choice and the way in which the question is worded
agenda setting
the news media have a large influence on audiences, in terms of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them
pseudo polls
unscientific (and thus, unreliable) attempts to measure opinions and behaviors as well as other practices that look like polls but are designed for purposes other than legitimate research.
tracking polls
An opinion poll in which the same sample, such as a small number of voters, is questioned periodically to measure shifts in opinion.
benchmark poll
A benchmark poll is generally the first poll taken in a campaign. It is often taken before a candidate announces their bid for office but sometimes it happens immediately following that announcement after they have had some opportunity to raise funds. This is generally a short and simple survey of likely voters.
sampling error
is the deviation of the selected sample from the true characteristics, traits, behaviours, qualities or figures of the entire population.
random sample
is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component. Random sampling can also refer to taking a number of independent observations from the same probability distribution, without involving any real population. The sample usually is not a representative of the population from which it was drawn— this random variation in the results is termed as sampling error.
ordinarily used to describe an attitude of mind towards some proposition of whose truth we are not certain.[1] The proposition of interest is usually of the form "Will a specific event occur?" The attitude of mind is of the form "How certain are we that the event will occur?"
sample bias
is when a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others
straw poll
Straw polls provide dialogue among movements within large groups, reflecting trends like organization and motivation.[1][2] In meetings subject to rules of order, impromptu straw polls often are taken to see if there is enough support for an idea to devote more meeting time to it, and (when not a secret ballot) for the attendees to see who is on which side of a question
sample size
Larger sample sizes generally lead to increased precision
margin of error
tatistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results. The larger the margin of error, the less faith one should have that the poll's reported results are close to the "true" figures;
soft money
is contributed to the political party as a whole. Historically, "soft money" referred to contributions made to political parties for purposes of party building and other activities not directly related to the election of specific candidates
position issue
issue on which opinion is divided
issue ownership
The notion of ‘issue ownership’ is frequently used in analyses of party strategies. Parties are said to ‘own’ an issue when they develop a reputation of competence and attention in that domain.
front loading primaries
States vie for earlier primaries to claim greater influence in the nomination process, as the early primaries can act as a signal to the nation, showing which candidates are popular and giving those who perform well early on the advantage of the bandwagon effect
closed primary
People may vote in a party's primary only if they are registered members of that party. Independents cannot participate. Note that because some political parties name themselves independent, the term "non-partisan" often replaces "independent" when referring to those who are not affiliated with a political party.
s a cognitive process, in which media information (Primes) increases temporarily the accessibility of knowledge units in the memory of an individual, which makes it more likely that these knowledge units are used in the reception, interpretation and judgement for the following external information.
selective perception
Selective perception marketing says your customers actively block or modify messages that conflict with their values and attitudes.