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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
self-rule
autonomy to determine their own political, socio-economic and/or cultural affairs/ separation
shared-rule
cooperation/integration
power-sharing
to rule jointly and to take decisons in consensus
majority democracy
elite competition and changing minorities
consensus democracy
elite cooperation and joint governance
consociationalism
linked to ethnically segmented societies
corporatism or proportional democracy
elite cooperation without segmental cleavages
three philosophical approaches to Islam in Europe
partial or absolute rejection of societal norms/ abandonment of strict practices of Islam/ adaptation of Islam
multiculturalism
immigrants should have the right to preserve habits and traditions on their home countries
ethno-pluralism
in order to preserve the unique national characters of different people they have to be separated
nativism
favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants
bicameralism
practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers
presidential government
popular election of the president who direct the goverment and makes appointments to it
parliamentary government
governing parties emerge from the assembly. government ministers are drawn from and and remains members of the legislatures
vote of no confidence
where the head of government and the council of ministers can be dismissed from office in a parliamentary government
executive head of state
indirectly elected/ not chief executive, rather a figure who is "above" day-to-day politics
countries that have constitutional monarchies
belgium, britain, denmark, netherlands, norway, spain, sweden
countries with directly elected presidents (semi-presidential)
France, Finland, Austria, Iceland, Ireland, Portugal
countries with indirectly elected presidents
Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Switzerland
head of state - ceremonial leadership
during state occasions, foreign visits, international conferences and the ratification of treaties and legislation
head of state - popular leadership function
guaranteeing the stability of the regime ensuring compliance and cooperation of the general public
head of state- crisis leadership function
during domestic crises of a political nature by trying to maintain balance
head of government functions - policy making leadership
to govern; to develop coherent social and economic programme and to contorl the state's various external relationships
head of government functions - bureaucratic leadership
overseeing the implementation of policy programme and legislation
head of government functions - crisis leadership
during domestic and/or international crises
the cabinet - vital role for the political head of the major department of state
responsible for the affairs of the department to the cabinet as a whole, legislature and electorate
the cabinet - vital role for the member of government construed as a collective entity
collective cabinet responsibility
parliamentary govt - cabinet govt
PM are chairs of council meetings; e.g. Finland, Netherlands
parliamentary govt - prime ministerial govt
hierarchy rather than collegiality; e.g. Germany
parliamentary govt - ministerial govt
Ministers operate without extensive direction from either prime minister of cabinet
semi-presidential govt
combining an elected president with a prime minister and cabinet accountable to parliament
cohabitation
president and PM are drawn from different political camps/ intensifies competition between the two principals and places the president in the position of leading both the nation and the opposition
party families of the left
social-democrats, communists, greens
party families of the centre and right
christian democrats, secular conservatives, liberals, far right
social democratic family
entered politics end 19th century/ mobilize to represent political interest of growing working class/ extended electoral appeal to middle class; e.g. Austria, France, Germany
Communist family
less successful at elecitons; collapse of communist regime; berlin wall 1989
green parties
remains marginal in Europe in 80s. Agenda: protect environment, international peace, aid for third world, equal treatment women, ethnic minorities
christian democrats
19th century; based in most of western Europe; response to secularizing and anti-clerical impulses from conservatives and liberals; religious emphasis only on moral issues: abortion, euthanasia
secular conservatives (u.k.)
opposition to state intervention, antitax parties, law and order, govt efficiency
right-wing liberals
fiscal rectitude and minimal state intervention; countries with strong Christian-democracy; need of anti-clerical component
left-wing liberals
individual right, social justice, and egalitarianism
far right
extremely conservative and highly xenophobic; heirs of fascist anti-system right wing mvoements; rising tide of racism in Europe; increasing disillusion in Europe; gaining popularity
flash parties
fall as quickly as they rise/ populist and inexperienced leaders/ activists operating on the margins of the law
ES-M1 Election: simple plurality
winner takes all; first past the post. Single member constituencises, selection of single candidates, plurality of votes, majority of votes is not necessary (U.K.)
ES-M2 Election: second ballot system
single candidate constituencies and single-choice voting (FPTP)/ to win the ballot, candidate needs overall majorty of votes/ no candidate gains a first ballot majority - run off ballot is held between the leading two candidates (FRANCE)
ES-PR1 Party List system
represent parties rather than territories: single constituency or large multimember constituencies/ seats directly proportioned to theier share of votes; vote for a party's candidate rather than single person; vary in how much choice voters have
ES-PR2 Single Transferable Vote
Multimember constituencies; Parties put forward as many candidates as there are seats to fill; Preferentially voting; Ranking in order of preference;
Candidates are elected if they achieve a quota; Votes are counted according to first preferences; If not all seats are filled, bottom candidate is eliminated
f.e. Ireland
ES-M1 Mixed Member Proportional
Combines geographical representation of the plurality with party representation of PR; electors have 2 votes; party list vote determines the number of seats to be awarded to each party; candidates from party list are used to top up its directly elected candidates until the correct (proportional) number of seats is acheived in each region (germany)