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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
political culture
widely shared views about who should govern, for what ends and by what means
values
shared ideas about what is good and desirable
beliefs
SHARED IDEAS ABOUT WHAT IS TRUE
subcultures
variations on the prevailing values and beliefs in a society
classical liberalism
political philosophy asserting the worth and dignity of the individual and emphasizing the rational ability of human beings to determine their own destinies
capitalism
economic system asserting the individual's right to own private property and to buy, sell, rent, and trade that property in a free market
political equality
belief that the law should apply equally to all and that every person's vote couts equally
equality of opportunity
elimination of artificial barriers to success in life and the opportunity for everyone to strive for success
equality of reults
eual sharing of income and material goods regardless of one's efforts in life
social mobility
xtent to which people move upward or downward in income and status over a lifetime of generations
class conflict
conflict between upper and lwer social classes over wealth and power
class consciousness
awareness of one's class position and a feeling of politican solidarity with other within the same class in opposition to other classes
ideology
consistent and integrated system of ideas, values, and beliefs
conservatism
belief in the value of free markets, limited government, and individual self-reliance in economic affairs, combined with a belief in the value of tradition, law and morality in social affairs
liberalism
belief in the value of strong government to provide economic security and protection for civil rights, combined with a belief in personal freedom from government intervention in social conduct
left
a reference to the liberal, progressive, and/or socialist side of the political spectrum
right
a refrence to the conservative, traditional, anticommunist side of the politican spctrum
radicalism
adocacy of immediate and drastic changes in society, including the complete restructuring of institutions, values, and beliefs
extremism
rejection of democratic politics and the assertion of the supremacy of the "people" over laws, institutions, and individual rights
fascism
political ideology in which the state and/or race is assumed to be supreme over individuals
marxism
the theories of Karl Marx, among them that capitalist oppress workers and that worldwide revolution and the emergence of a classless society are inevitable
leninism
the theories of Vladimir Lenin, among them that advanced capitalist countries turned toward war and colonialism to make their own workers relatively prosperous
communism
system of government in which a single totalitarian party controls all means of production and distribution of goods and services
socialism
system of government involving collective of government ownership of economic enterprise, with the goal being euality of results, not merely equality of opportunity
end of history
the collapse of communism and the worldwide movement toward free marets and politican democracy
politically correct
repression of attitudes, speech, and writing that are deemed racist, sexist, homophohic
constitutionalism
a government of laws, not people, operating on the principle that governmental power, operating on the principle that governmental power must be limited and goernment officials should be restrained in their exercise of pwer over individuals
constitution
the legal structure of a political system, establishing governmental bodies, granting their powers, determining how their members are selected, and prescribing the rules by which they make their decisions
republicanism
government by representatives of the people rather than directly by the people themselves
nationalism
belief that shared cultural, historical, linguistic, and social characteristics of a people justify the creation of a government encompassing all of them, the resulting nation-state should be independent and legally equal to all other nation-states
taxes
compulsory payments to the government
tariff
ta imposed on imported products
common market
unified trade area in which all goods and services can be sold or exchanged free from customs or tariffs
referenda
proposed laws or constitutional amendments submitted to the voters for their direct approval or rejection, gound in state constitutions but not in the US constitution
separation of powers
constitutional division of powers among the three branches of the national government- legislative, executive, and judicial
checks and balances
constitutional provisions giving each branch of the national government certain checks over the actions of other branches
judicial review
power of the US supreme court and federal judiciary to declare laws of congress and the states and actions of the president unconstitutional and actions of the president
ratification
power of a legislature to approve or reject decisions made by other bodies state legislators or state conventions must ratify constitutional amendments submitted by congress the US senate must ratify treaties made by the president
Bill of Rights
written guarantees of basic individual liberties; the first ten amendments to the US constitution
enumerated powers
powers specifically mentioned in the constitution as belonging to the national government
amendment
formal change in a bill, law or constituion
judicial review
the power of federal courts to declare laws of congress and actions of the president unconstitutional