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95 Cards in this Set

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Bureaucracy
Departments, agencies, bureaus, and offices that perform the functions of government.
Chain of command
Hierarchical structure of authority in which command flows downward; typical of a bureaucracy.
Divisionof labor
Division of work among many specilized workers in a bureaucracy.
Specification of authority
Clear lines of responsibility with positions and units reporting to superiors in a bureaucracy.
Goal orientation
Ogranizational goals that determine structure, authority, and rules in a bureaucracy.
Impersonality
Treatment of all persons within a bureaucracy on the basis of "merit" and of all "clients" served by the bureaucracy equally according to rules.
Implementation
Development by the federal bureaucracy of procedures and activities to carry out policies legislated by congress; it includes regulation as well as adjudication.
Regulation
Development by the federal bureaucracy of formal rules for implementing legislation.
Adjudication
Decision making by federal bureaucracy as to whether of not an individual or organization has complied with or violated government laws and/or regulation.
Budget maximization
Bureaucrats tendencies to expand their agencies' budgets, staff, and authority.
Discretionary funds
Budgeted funds not earmarked for speific purposes but available to be spent in accordance withthe best judgement of a bureaucrat.
Cabinet Departments
Each department is headed by a sectetary who is appointed by the president and must be confirmed by the senate.
Cabinet Departments
Each department is headed by a sectetary who is appointed by the president and must be confirmed by the senate.
Cabinet Department
Each department is hierarchically organized, each has its own organization chart. Government departments vary widely in the budgetary funds they control and in the number of personnel.
Cabinet department functions
The relative power and prestige of each cabinet-level department is a product not only of its size and budget but also of the importance of its function. Determined by years of origin.
Cabinet Appointments
Officers of the US must be confirmed by the sentate.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
Differ form cabinet departments in their function, organization, and accountability to the president. Their function is to regulate a sector of society-transportation, banking, etc. These commissions are empowered by Congress to make and enforce rules.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
Headed by five to ten men, rather than a secretary. Major policy decisions are made by majority vote of the commission. These are more independent of the president than the cabinet departments. Their governing commissions are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate, but their are no fixed terms and cannot be removed by president.
Independent Agencies
Like cabinet departments these agencies are hierarchially organized by a single head-called an administrator who is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Administrators have no fixed terms of office and can be dismissed by the president. This independence ensures that their interests and budgets will not be compromised by other concerns, as may occur in agencies located in departments.
Federal Reserve System
Is the most independent of all federal government agencies. The function is to regulate the supply of money and thereby avoid both inflation and recession.
GovernmentCorporations
Are created by Congress to undertake independent commerical enterprise. They resemble private corporations in that they typically charge for their services. Government Corporations perform a service that private enterprise system has been unable to carry out. Tennessee Valley Authority Bulids dams and sells electricity.
Contractors and Consultants
Nearly one-fifth of all federal government spending flows through private contractors:for supplies, equipment, services, and research and development.
Spoils System
Selection of employees for government agencies on the basis of pary loyalty, electoral support, and political influence.
Merit System
Selection of employees for government agencies on the basis of competence, with no consideration of an individual's political stance and or power.
Merit System was introduced in what?
Pendleton Act of 1833, created Civil Service Commisssion to establish a system for selecting government personnel based on merit, as determinned by competitive examinations.
Whistle Blowers
Employee of the federal government of a firm supplying the government who reports waste, mismanagement, and or fraud by a government agency or contractor.
Agency Cultures
Overtime, every bureaucracy tends to develop its own culture, beliefs about values of the organization's program and goal and close associaions with the agency's client groups and political supporters.
Agency Cultures Beliefs
Bureaucrats not only share a belief in the need for government expansion but also stand to benefit directly from increased authority, staffing, and funding as government takes on new and enlarged responsibilities.
Friends and Neighbors
Most bureaucratic hiring comes about through networks of personal friends and professional associates.
What are the president's responsibilities in the budgetary process?
The president is responsible for submitting the annual Budget of the United States Government with estimates of revenues and recommendations for expenditures.
Who hold the budgetary power?
The president and the Office of Management and Budget in the Executive Office of the President have real budgetary power.
First President and OMB
OMB present long-range forecast for revenues and expenditures to the president. President and OMB develop general guidelines for all federal agencies. Agencies are sent guidelines and forms for their budget requests.
Second Executive Agencies
Agencies prepare and submit budget requests to OMB.
Third OMB and Agencies
OMB reviews agency requests and holds hearings with agency officials.
Fourth OMB and President
OMB presents revised budget to president. President and OMB write budget message for Congress.
Fifth President
President presents budget for the next fiscal year to Congress.
Sixth CBO and congressional committees
Congressional Budget Office reviews taxing and spending proposals and reports to the House and Senate budget committees.
Seventh Congress; House and Senate budget committees
Committees present first concurrent resolution, which sets overall total for budget outlays in major categories. Full House and Senate vote on resolution. Committes are instructed to stay within Budget Committee's Resolution.
Eigth Congress; House and Senate appropriations cmmittees and budget committees
Appropriations committees and subcommittees draw up detail apppropriations bills and submit them to budget committes for second concurrent resolution. The full house and senate vote on "reconciliations" and second concurrent resolution.
Ninth Congress and President
House and Senate pass various appropriations bills. Each is sent to president for signature.
Tenth Congress and President
Fiscal year for all federal agencies begins October 1. If no appropriations bill for an agency has been passed by Congress and signed by the president, Congress msut pass and the president sign a continuing resolution to allow the agency to spend at last year's level until new appropriations bill is passed. If no continuing resolutin is passed, the agency must officially cease spending government funds and must officially shut down.
Fiscal Year
Begins October 1 and ends September 30
Budget Resolution
Congressional bill setting forth target budget figures for appropriations to various government departments and agencies.
Authorization
Act of Congress that establishes a government program and defines the amount of money it may spend.
Appropriations act
Congressioal bill that provides money for programs authorized by Congress.
Obligational authority
Feature of some appropriations acts by which an agency is emppowered to enter into contracts that will require the government to make payments beyond the fiscal year in question.
Outlays
Actual dollar amounts to be spent by the federal government in a fiscal year.
Continuing resolution
Congressional bill that authorizes government agencies to deep spending money for a specified period at the same level as inthe previous fiscal year; passed when Congress is unable to enact a final appropriations measures by October 1.
Incremental Budgeting
Method of budgeting that focuses on requested increases in funding for existing programs, accepting as legitimate their previous year's expenditures.
The most important factor determining the size and content of the budget is?
Last year's budget.
Why are budget decisions made incrementally
Because policy makers do not have the time and energy or information to review every dollar of every budget request every year.
Incredmental Budgeting
Is that many programs, services, and expenditures continue long after there is any real justification for them. When new needs and services, and functions arise, they do not displace older ones but rather are added to the budget.
Zero-based budgeting
Method of budgeting that demands justification for the entrie budget request of an agency, not just its requested increase in funding.
Program budgeting
Identifying items in a budget according to the functions and programs they are to be spent on.
Bureaucracies regulate
every aspect of American life, Interest rates on loans are heavily influenced by the Federal Reserve Board.
Federal Regulatory bureaucracies are?
Legislators, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and juries. They issue thousand of pages of rules and regulations each year; they investigate thousands of complaints and conduct thousands of inspections; they require businesses to submit forms, they hold hearings, determin compliance and noncompliance.
Regulatory commissions
Regulation adds to the cost of living and hinders eonomic competition. Most regulatory commissions are independent; they are not under an executive department, and their members are appointed for long terms by a president who has little control over activities.
Capture Theory regulation
Theory describing how some regulated industries come to benefit from government regulation and how some regulatory commissions come to represent the industries they are supposed to regulate rather than representing the "people".
Deregulation
lifting of governments rules and bureaucratic supervision from business and professional activity
Deregulation
Threatens to diminsh politicans power and to eliminate bureaucrats' jobs.
Congressional constraints on the bureaucracy
Bureaucracy are unelected hierarchical organizations, yet they must funciton within a democratic government. Ensure that bureaucracy is responsible to the people.
Congress responsibility
Congress-through its power to create or eliminate and fund or fail to fund these agencies-exerts its full share of control. Most of the structure of the executive branch of government is determined by laws of Congress. Congress has the consitutional power to create or abolish executive departments and independent agencies.
Congressional Oversight
of the federal bureaucracy is a continuing activity. Congress justifies its oversight of activities on the ground that its lawmaking powers require it to determine whether the purposes of the laws it passed are being carried out.
Casework
Services perfomed by legislators and their staffs on behalf of individual constituents.
Interest Groups
Understand that great power is lodged in the bureaucracy. Indeed, interest goups exercise an even closer oversight of the bureacracy than do the president, Congress, and courts, largely because their interests are directly affected by day to day bureaucratic deicions. Interest groups focus their attention on the particular departments and agencies that serve or regulate their own members of that function intheir chosen policy field.
Pork barreling
Describes the efforts of senators and representative to bring home the bacon-to bring federally funded projects, grants, contracts that primarily benefit a single district or state to their home constituencies. To make government benefits.
Iron triangles
Mutually supportive relationships among interest groups, government agencies, and legislative committees with jurisdiction over a specific policy area.
In general interest groups strive to maintain?
Clos working rlationship with the departments and agen ies that serve their members or regulate their industries.
Bureaucracy
Bureaucraties seek to nourish relationships with powerful client groups that are capable of pressuring Congress to expangd their authority and increase their budgets.
Bureaucracy and interest groups relationship?
Both bureaucracies and interest goups seek close working relationships witht he congressional committtees that exercise jurisdiction over their policy function
Congress
Congress seek the political and financial support of powerful interest groups, and memebers also seek to influence bureaucrats to favor supportive interest groups.
Iron Triangles
Bureaucracies, interest groups, and congressional committees.
Bureaucrats
Get political support from interest groups in their requests for expanded power and authority and increased budgetary allocations.
Interest Groups
Get favorable treatment of their members by the bureaucracy.
Congressional Committee members
Get political and financial support from interest groups, as well favorable treatment for their constituents and contributors who are served or regulated by the bureaucracy.
To become the president
Person must be a natural born citizen, at least 35 years of age, nad a resident of the US for 14 years.
Twenty-second Amendment
Which officially restricts the president to two terms.
Twenty-fifth Amendment
Stipulates that whent he vice president and a majority of the cabinet notify the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the senate in writing that the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, then the VP becomes acting president. To resume power, president must notify Congress that no inability exists. 2/3rd vote of both house and senate to replace president.
Twenty-fifth Amendment
provides for the selection of a new vice president by presidential nomination and confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress.
Chief of State
The executive power shall be vested in a president.
Grant reprieves and pardons. Represent the nation as chief of state. Appoint federal court and Supreme Court judges.
Impeachment
Equivalent of a criminal charge against an elected official; removal of the impeached oficial from office depends ont he outcome of the trial.
Who has the power to bring charges of impeachment?
House of Representatives.
Who has the power to try all impeachment?
Senate
Impeachment
Impeachment by the house and conviction by the Senate only remove an official from office. Treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Watergate
The scandal that led to the forced resignation of President Richard M Nixon. Adding "gate" as a suffix to any alleged corruption in government suggests an analogy to the watergate scandal.
Watergate Scandal
Five men with burglary tools and wirtapping devices were arrested in the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate building.
Executive privilege
Right of a president to withold from other branches of government confidential communications within the executive branch; although posited by presidents, it has been upheld by the supreme court only in limited situations.
Impoundment
Refusal by president to spend monies appropriated by congress; outlawed except with congressional consent by the budget and impoundment control act 1974.
Deferrals
Items on which a president wishes to postpone spending.
Rescissions
Items on which a president wishes to cancel spending.
Constitution's Congressional Tilt
The congress can override the president's veto legislation if it can muster a two-thirds vote in both houses. The congress can impeach and remove the president from office. Only the congress can appropriate moeny. Major presidential appointments require senate confirmation. The president is obliged by the consitution to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed"-that is laws of congress-regardless fo any personal feelings.
Reputation for power
Is itself a source of power
Presidential Popularity
Regularly tracked in national opinion polls.
When is the president's popularity at the highest?
At the beginning of the president's term of office.
When does popularity rise and fall?
Druing crises, but prolong warfare and stalemate erode popular support. Major scandals may hurt the president, and economic recessions erode popularity