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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
normative research
Research that is evaluative, value-laden, and concerned with prescribing what ought to be
empirical research
Research based on actual "objective" observation of phenomena
interpretivist approach
positive approach
research question
the question which the research sets out to answer
A tentative or provisional or unconfirmed statement that can be verified
null hypothesis
a statement that a population parameter equals a single or specific value. Often that the difference between two populations is zero.
dependent variable
The phenomenon thought to be influenced, affected, or caused by some other phenomenon
independent variable
The phenomenon thought to influence, affect, or cause some other phenomenon
control variable
The inputs and outputs which a control system manipulates and measures to keep proper control.
A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level, typically with certain limits
An abstract idea; a general notion
operational indicator
inductive theory
deductive theory
unit of analysis
the type of actor specified in a researcher's hypothesis
ecological fallacy
the fallacy of deducing a false relationship between the attributes or behavior of individuals based on observing that relationship for groups to which the individuals belong
face validity
validity asserted by arguing that a measure corresponds closely to the concept in the dependent variable
construct validity
validity demonstrated for a measure by showing that is related to the measure of another concept
multi-item index
a number of ratings combined into a single value
internal validity
the ability to show that manipulation or variation of the independent variable actually causes the dependent variable to change.
external validity
the ability to generalize from one set for research findings to other situations
cross-sectional survey
a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at a defined time.
longitudinal survey
correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time. It is a type of observational study.
sampling size
The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it
sampling frame
the population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population if interest to a study
sampling error
the difference between a sample estimate and a corresponding population parameter that arises because only a portion of a population is observed
confidence level
the degree of belief that an estimated range of values-more specifically, a high or low value-includes or covers the population parameter
margin of error
confidence level
the degree of belief that na estimated range of values-more specifically a high or low value-includes or covers the population parameter
margin of error
amount of random sampling error in a survey's results
primary data
data recorded and used by the researcher who is making observations
secondary data
data used by a researcher that was not personally collected by that researcher
content analysis
a procedure by which verbal, quantitative records are transformed into quantitative data
intercoder reliability
demonstration that multiple analysts, following the same content analysis procedure, agree and obtain the same measurements
Solomon four-group design
a way of avoiding some of the difficulties associated with the pretest-posttest design
measurement of the dependent variable prior to the administration of the experimental treatment or manipulation of the independent variable
measurement of the dependent variable after manipulation of the independent variable
field experiment
experimental designs applied in a natural setting