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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A giving of federal funds to a state or local government to subsidize a public project; A giving of funds to an institution or a person in order to subsidize a project or program.
the central government must act indirectly through the states when dealing with individual citizens and states may secede from the union
uniatry nation-state
local governments can exercise only those powers given to them by the central government. Unitary government exists in Great Britain, france, and Israel.
dual sovereignty
the national government has the exclusive power to act in its sphere of influence, for example, in interstate commerce.
Tenth Amendment
"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibitied by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
"necessary and proper" clause
(also known as the elastic clause, the basket clause, the coefficient clause, and the sweeping clause) states: "The Congress shall have power …To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof."
a constitutional theory that gives an individual state the right to declare null and void any law passed by the United States Congress which the state deems unacceptable and unconstitutional.
dual federalism
the belief that having separate but equal branches of government is the best option. This form of government works on the principle that the national and state governments are split into their own spheres, and each is supreme in its respective sphere. dual federalism discusses the relationship between the national government and the states' governments.
compact theory of federalism
This theory stated that the framers had created a system in which the United States was compsed of soverign states united through a compact.
cooperative federalism
both the federal and the state governments share responsibilities in certain areas/services to ensure the operation of national programs throughout the country.
revenue sharing
the splitting of operating profits and losses between the general partner and limited partners in a limited partnership; the practice of sharing operating profits with a company's employees, or of sharing the revenues resulting between companies in an alliance.
fiscal federalism
the system of transfer payments or grants by which a federal government shares its revenues with lower levels of government.
block grants
a large sum of money granted by the national government to a regional government with only general provisions as to the way it is to be spent.
categorical grants
During the development of the interstate highway system, congressional grants provided roughly 90% of the funding. These types of federal grants are called categorical grants because the national government determines the purposes, or categories, for which the money should be used. Categorical grants may be spent only for narrowly defined purposes and recipients often must match a portion of the federal funds. 33% of categorical grants are considered to be formula grants.
coercive federalism
creative federalism that evolved into another subset.
a kind of treaty arrangement
devolution revolution
Clinton stated "The era of big government is over".
a group or body of members are bound together with a governing representative head. The term federalism is also used to describe a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (like states or provinces), Federalism is the system in which the power to govern is shared between the national & state governments, creating what is often called a federation.
formula grants
distribute money to state and local governments so that they can help implement federal policies in such areas as health, transportation, and education.
"privileges and immunities" project grants
includes allowing residents of one state to acquire property, enter into contracts, and have access to the courts in a second state. It does not include the extension of political rights such as voting and jury service.
11th Amendment
The Judicial powers of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.