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46 Cards in this Set

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Primary Election
Voters pick which candidate will represent their party in the general election.
General Election
Voters pick a candidate to hold a political office.
Closed Primary
Primary in which you can only vote for the party which you are registered for.
Open Primary
Primary when all registered voters can participate.
Blanket Primary
Primary in which all registered voters can vote, and everyone gets the same ballot.
Caucus
Primary in which registered members of a party gather to debate and vote on candidates.
Spoils System
A system in which government employees are given their jobs because of WHO they know.
Specialization
The idea that specific tasks should be given to people who are experts at them.
Administrative Discretion
The authority which an agency or bureaucrat has in interpreting and implementing a law.
Welfare State
Social system in which the government is responsible for the welfare of its citizens
What are the main constraints on bureaucracies?
*They do not have control over revenue
*Decisions must be made according to pre-established rules
*Other institutions mandate goals
What are the main tools which a president has to control bureaucracies?
*Appointment power
*Power to re-assign programs from one agency to another
*The power to promote or demote agencies
What are the main tools which congress has to control bureaucracies?
*Power of the purse
*Administrative oversight (conducting investigations)
*Advice and consent (senate must confirm nominees)
Iron Triangles
Informal 3-way relationships between legislative committees, bureaucracies, and interest groups.
Whistleblower Protection Act
Reform which encourages people to report instances of bureaucratic mismanagment.
Realignment
A shift in party identification. Usually occurs after a historic event or crisis.
What are the main functions of political parties?
*Organizing elections/candidates/issues
*Combining and meeting groups interests
*Simplifying political choices by informing people of party opinions on issues.
*Organizing government to allow for policy making that is in-line with the party's views.
Machine Politics
Party bosses trade jobs, money and favors for votes.
National Party Convention
National meeting of political parties every 4 years, to choose who will run for the presidency, and to write the party platform.
How does a candidate run for presidency?
*Party members must vote for them in the primary
*State officials take their votes to the national convention
*Winner of the national convention is sponsored by the party
Frontloading
When most party primaries are held early in the nomination schedule, so that the candidate must ensure their support early on.
Superdelegates
Delegates who are expected to remain faithful to party policy, not the public. This ensures that candidates must still remain faithful to the party.
PACS
Political Action Committees. Parts of interest groups which raise money and distribute it to candidates.
Single-Member Districts
Electoral college votes which go to the candidate with the most votes.
How many people are in the electoral college?
538
15th Amendment
Amendment which gave African American males the right to vote
19th Amendment
Amendment which gave women the right to vote
24th Amendment
Amendment which outlawed the poll tax.
Voting Rights Act
Reform act which provided protection for African Americans wishing to vote.
26th Amendment
Amendment which made the voting age 18.
Voter Turnout
The percentage of elligable voters, who actually showed up to vote.
Initiative
A proposal created by citizens and voted upon during elections
Referendum
A proposal submitted by a state legislature, often focusing on whether a state should spend money in a certain way.
Retrospective Voting
Looking back at how well a candidate or party has done over the last term in order to determine who to vote for.
Coattails Effect
When voters elect representatives or senators of the same party of a successful president's party.
How many electoral college votes must a candidate win in order to become president?
270
Contingency Election
Election which is held in the House of Representatives, because no candidate recieved the majority of votes.
Maintaining Election
Election in which the majority party wins Congress and the White House, thus maintaining control.
Deviating Election
Election in which the minority party captures the white house.
Issue Advocacy
Process of campainging to persuade the public to take a certain position on an issue.
Federal Matching Funds
Presidential candidates who raise money in a recquired way may recieve matching federal funds.
Independendt Expenditures
Funds disperesed by a group or person who is not associated with a candidate.
Soft Money
Campaign contributions directed to a party or issue in general, not to a specific candidate. There are no limits on soft money.
What is the oldest political party?
Democrat
What type of primary does California hold?
Modified Closed Primary
Self Perpetuation
Teaching party loyalty