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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
agreement of both dem & rep parties
Divided Party Government
one party controls president, other controls house(s) of congress
delaying tactic by senator(s) using unlimited debate rule to prevent vote on a bill
vote to end debate/filibuster, requires 3/5 vote of all senate
Standing Committee
permanent committee of the house or senate that deals w/matters within a specified subject area
specialized committees within a standing committeee, recommendations must be approved by full standing committee before submission to floor
Who is the Speaker of the House?
President officer of House of Representatives
Speaker of the House Roles (4)
-who speaks $ order
-if topic is germaine(relevant)
-which bills go to which committee
-can schedule/delay votes on a bill
Speaker of the House is elected by...
majority party, and focuses on majority party
Open Seat
seat with no incumbent running for reelection
Safe Seat
seat which incumbent regularly wins
Hill styles & Home Styles
how much time spent on home lifestyles w/constituents and hill lifestyles at Washington on lawmaking assignments
replacement of members of congress by retirement or resignation by reapportioning or electoral defeat
services performed by legislators or their staff on behalf of individual constituents
"retail politics"
Pork Barrelling
legislation designed to make govt benefits (jobs and projects for political patronage to particular district/state)
Affirmative racial gerrymandering
drawing district boundaries to maximize minority representation
two acts that protect disadvantages of racial gerrymandering
equal protection clause (14th amendment)
voting rights act (clear w/US justice dept for states w/history of discrimination, not allowed to weaken minority voting power)
drawing district boundary lines for political advantage
redistricting in which a strong minority is divided up and diluted to prevent it from electing a representative
redistricting in which partisan voters are concentrated in a single district wasting majority vote-allow opposition to win by modest majorities
baker v. carr (1962)
different sized districts, how equal must districts be in order to guarantee voters equal protection?
legislative apportionment
allocation of leg seats to juristidictions based on population
recounted every 10 year census
delegate (constituent agent)
legislators who feel obligated to present views of their home constituents viewpoint based on folks back home
trustee (free agent)
legislators who feel obligated to use their own best judgement in decision making
senate term
6 year terms
house of representative term
2 year terms
senate and house elected by
popular vote
17th amendment
senate elected by popular election, not state legislators
bicameral legislation
legislative body of 2 houses
how many senators?
how many representatives in the house?
congressional session
each congress elected in even numbered novembers on january 3 for 2 years
discharge petition
signed by 218 + house members ot force a vote on a bill w/in a committee that opposes it
pendleton act of 1883
created civil service commission to establish a system for selecting govt personnel based on merit
spoils system
merit system
govt employment based on competence, neutrality, and protection from partisanship
decision making by federal bureaucracy as to whether or not an individual or organization has compiled w/or violated govt laws/regulation
development by the federal bureaucracy of procedures and activites to carry out policies legislated by congress -- regulation and adjudication
development by federal government bureaucracy of formal rules for implementing legislation
diplomatic recognition
power of president to grant legitimacy or withhold it from a government of another nation, to declare or refuse to declare it rightful
executive agreement
agreement w/another nation signed by president but less formal and less binding than a treaty, because it doesn't require senate confirmation
presidential qualifications
natural born citizen
35 + years old
resident of us for 14 years
office of management and budget (bureau of budget)
assists president in preparing an annual budget of us govt for presentation to congress. congress must pass appropriations acts before president or any executive departments may spend money. frequently altered
vice president roles (3)
-preside over senate and vote incase of tie
-used for fundraising
-used for launching stron political attacks on opponents so pres looks good
most insignificant office..-john adams
vice president
war powers act
bill passed to limit presidential war-making powers, restricts when, why, and for how long a president can commit us forces and requires notification and approval of congress
line item veto
power of chief executive to reject some portions of a bill w/o rejecting all of it
rejection of a legislation act by executive branch
veto requires...
2/3 majority vote of both houses
pocket veto
effective veto of a bill when congress adjourns w/in 10 days of passing it and the president fails to sign it
voting in congress to enact legislation vetoed by president
override requires...
2/3 majority vote of both houses
25h amendment
presidential succession: if presdient is unable to discharge powers and duties of office, VP becomes acting president.
to resume powers, president notifies congress in writing, "no ability exists"
if VP and majority of cabinet officers don't agree, 21 days to decid
if VP and majority of cabinet officers don't agree that the President resume powers..
21 days to decide, 2/3 vote of both house and senate to replace P w/VP
Who is white house staff made up of
presidents closest aides and advisors
White house staff jobs (4)
1- provide pres w/advice on affairs, policies, and electoral politics
2- monitor exec departments and agencies operations evaluate performance
3- setting presidents schedule
4- protect their boss from scandals, etc
who is the chief executive
executive order
formal regulation governing executive branch operations issued by the president
the president has capacity to do.. (3 things)
mobilize public opinion
communicate directly w/US people
employ symbols of office to advance policy initiatives in both foreign and domestic affairs
covert action
secret intelligence activity outside US borders undertaken w/specific authorization by the president, acknowledgement of US sponsorship would defeat or compromise its purpose
the heads (secretaries) of the ex departments together with othe rtop officials accorded cabinet rank by the president, only occasionally does it meet as a body to advice and support the president
22nd amendment
restricts president to 2 terms
freedom of information act
requires agencies to allow citizens and media to inspect public records with some exception for intelligence, current criminal investigations, and personal actions
prviacy act
requires agencies to keep confidential the personal records of individuals (ssn, income tax records)
incremental budgeting
method of budgeting that focuses on requested increases in funding for existing programs accepting as legitimate their previous years expenditures
zero-based budgeting
method of budgeting that demands justification for the entire budget request of an agency not just its requested increase in funding
independent regulatory commissions
function is to regulate a sector of society (transportation, banking..) empowered by congress to make/enforce rules headed by commissions (5-10 members)
agency cultures
develop beliefs and values about org programs and goals. believe work is important, resist efforts to reduce activities, size or budget. supports englargement
govt corporation
created by congress to undertake independent agencies and commerical enterprises. typically charge for services. 1st- tenessee valley authority
independent agencies
hierchically organized w/single head called an administrator. (appted by pres, senate confirms) no fixed terms, dismissed by president, interests/budgets not be compromised by other concerns
the great compromise (3 aspects)
hor by population, senate by equal rep
slaves=3/5 a person
senators elected by state legislators until 17th amendment
capture theory of regulation
theory describing how some regulated industries come to benefit from government regulation and how regulation commissions come to represent the industries they're supposed to regulate rather than representing the people
when is president most popular
-times of crisis, during reelection, beginning of term (can be very brief)
when is president least popular
during major scandals and economic resession, general trend is downward
items on which a president wishes to postpone spending