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73 Cards in this Set

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Identify and discuss the two ways the term "democracy" has been used.
analytic- allows you to describe and discuss and do analysis of society or politics
normative- has embedded into it ideas of virtue and morality, stands for ideal political system, institutions and processes call themselves democracies
What is the essence of the concept of democracy?
popular sovereignty (the people rule)
Identify and discuss the two types of democracy.
direct (Greek Conception)- all citizens assemble to make decisions, limitation has to do with scale, collective decision making/participatory
indirect (representative/liberal democracy)- people don't rule themselves, rule through elected government
What is the new term Robert Dahl adopts that is a synonym for representative democracy?
polyarchy
What are the three basic features of representative democracy?
1. competition among potential officials for offices
2. contested elections
3. transmission of political relevant information takes place autonomous from state
What is the term for the realm in which people are autonomous from state action and therefore can get together in their perceived interests?
civil society
The conditions that mark the rise and maintenance of a democratic order can be found in the processes of ___ and ___.
industrialization, modernization
How can industrialization be distinguished from other forms of economic development?
It is marked by the quantum increase in productive power
Name the four elements that contribute to the productive power associated with industrialization.
1. production geared twoard exchange not subsistence
2. use of inanimate sources of power
3. application of scientific and engineering knowledge to production (growth vs. development)
4. factors of production concentrated into large units
What is modernity or modernization?
can be thought of as the social face of economic change
Name two features of modernization.
1. individualism replaces corporatism
2. structural differentiation- specialized institutions perform social functions
What is the term for the price a husband would pay his bride's family for her hand in marriage?
bride price
What two functions does the bridge price serve?
1. compensation to bride's family for loss of labor and potential children
2. if bride divorces, must return money, creates incentive for family to make bride stay in marriage, cement
What's the term for the kind of marriage where if the husband dies the wife will marry his brother? Vice versa?
leverite, sororite
In order for a democracy to be sustained over time, internal conflicts must be ___ rather than ___.
moderate, intense
Name three features of moderate conflicts and two features of intense conflicts.
moderate- 1. differences are amenable to compromise, 2. losers are willing to accept outcomes, 3. rivals are viewed as opponents
intense- 1. actors seek obliteration, complete negation, of rivals, 2. rivals are viewed not as opponents but as enemies
Name four ways modernity contributes to democracy.
1. cross-cutting cleavages
2. cultural basis for civil society
3. basis for genuine popular sovereignty, autonomy of individual from group membership
4. basis of genuine electoral competition, shifting rather than fixed party allegiance
Name three requirements for civil society to exist.
1. interest in limiting state's reach
2. ability to limit state's reach (financial, military, organizational)
3. notion of autonomy must be embedded in political culture over time
What is the opposite of cross-cutting cleavages?
overlapping cleavages
What does industrialization create that demands their interests be attended to in the political process?
a new social middle bourgeoisie class
What two conditions are created by industrialization with respect to facilitating mass movement (contribution to democracy)?
1. urbanization (hallmark of industrialization)
2. technology
What makes dealing with the welfare paradox possible?
industrial sequencing (industrialization then democracy)
What nation is the only nation to have a democracy while industrializing?
United States
What four factors allowed the US to deal with the welfare paradox?
1. political culture (lockian ethos belief in a. individual effort and b. minimal government)
2. immigration (a. comparative reference group effect, ethnic divisions within working class)
3. open frontier (political safety valve)
4. political structure- Supreme Court
What makes the welfare paradox 'aggravated' for late industrializers?
1. international demonstration effect
2. global culture of participation and welfare
3. larger capital investment
4. labor unions precede industrializatoin
5. end of colonialism
Why did late industrializers face a need for larger capital investment?
1. skip early stages of industrialization to compete in global economy
2. increased population growth rate, lower death rate but stagnant birth rate
3. high dependency ratio because of many young ones
What question did the late industrializers often have to answer as well?
the National Question (who is actually member of terminal political community)
Name three aspects of the National Question.
1. multinational states result from colonialism
2. competitive elections hold potential for communal conflicts
3. democracy can threaten democracy
What do late industrializers have to do to deal with the aggravated welfare paradox?
1. have a larger role in the economy
2. exercise control over civil society
Name the three modes of politically-engineered growth and integration.
1. Leninist mobilization system
2. state-managed capitalism
3. clientelist states
Name the two aspects of the Leninist mobilization system.
1. command economy
2. penetration of society by the state
Name four features of state-managed capitalism.
1. economically interventionist state
2. managed competition
3. export orientation is key to success
4. labor repression
What happens eventually to state-managed capitalist states?
They are overcome by the industries they come to favor.
Give four characteristics of clientelist states.
1. weak central institutions
2. declare their party only legal party
3. utilitarian compliance
4. convert economic assets into political largesse
What was the Soviet economic model called?
Leninism
What were the three basic aspects of Leninism as an economic strategy?
1. high levels of capital accumulation (save money)
2. concentration on industry (spend heavily on capital goods)
3. rural sector organization
Name two purposes of rural sector organization.
1. surplus extraction to pay for industrialization
2. generate urban labor force (gets rid of all farmers except those needed to feed people or export)
What British acts drove labor from their countryside to cities?
Enclosure Acts
What was the Soviet political system called?
Leninist mobilization system
What were five distinguishing characteristics of the Leninist mobilization system?
1. goal structure (single minded pursuit of industrialization)
2. strategy (mobilization of all resources)
3. ideology (historical materialism, scientific socialism, nationalism)
4. organization (vanguard party)
5. compliance structure (normative and authoritative)
What were two ways the Soviets legitimized their political ideology?
1. the views and stories of Marx
2. the threat against the Soviets by westerners
What were three primary functions of the vanguard party?
1. makes sure officials are working with system and its leaders
2. make sure all groups and people are working in support of system and leaders
3. penetrate traditional society to ingrain feeling of support for communism
What were three key flaws in the Soviet system?
1. unbalanced growth, heavy industry becomes major influence to keep status quo
2. centralized planning effectiveness directly proportional to complexity of economy, can't make all decisions once there are so many
3. repressive apparatus builds timidity into the bureaucracy
Name three broad categories of the Soviet changed situation that occurred post-1965.
1. declining economic growth, Late Brezhnev Period (1975-1982), Era of Stagnation
2. destalinization
3. social changes associated with Soviet industrialization
What were two root causes of the Soviet economic decline?
1. failure to transition from heavy to light industry, had to fight Cold War
2. failure to make use of micro-chip technologies, didn't want spread of information
Who replaced Stalin when he died?
Nikita Kruschev
Name two major social changes associated with Soviet industrialization.
1. rapid and extensive urbanization (1926- 18%, 1985- 65%)
2. creation of a technocratic middle class
Why was there tension between the technocratic middle class and the political system?
1. they had a world perspective, penetrated Iron Curtain, recognize Soviet inefficiency
2. resentment of ideological conformity and bureaucratic control, everything censored
3. push for democratization, allows for loosening of controls on life
What were Gorbachev's two revolutionary ideas?
1. recognition of extent of economic collapse and its root in structure of Soviet system
2. new thinking in foreign policy, cannot function as movement or mission but as a normal country
What were Gorbachev's two strategies of change?
1. perestroika- restructuring of the economy
2. glasnost- political opening or liberalization
What were the two primary dimensions of perestroika?
1. shifting of resources away from heavy industry
2. loosening of administrative grip of the command economy, introduction of private property
List the ways Gorbachev thought glasnost would support perestroika?
1. got support of technocratic middle class
2. transparency, expose inadequacies
Name two ways examples of transparency mobilizing the populace in opposition to the party and elite.
1. nuclear disaster at Shenovo
2. flight from Germany to Red Square
Name three political demands Gorbachev didn't see glasnost leading to.
1. opens system to more than just support for perestroika, open to independence movements by satellites
2. great sentiment against party
3. great sentiment against perestroika itself, undermined by glasnost
Name four things that made perestroika very difficult.
1. institutional lags- no market economy institutions
2. bureaucratic sabotage- bureaucrats in transition would benefit themselves
3. loss of welfare is painful, especially for middle class
4. glasnost undermined perestroika
Who replaced Gorbachev in 1991 after he was a political casualty of popular hostility to perestroika?
Boris Yeltsin
What did Yeltsin want more of? Less of?
capitalism, democracy
Who replaced Yeltsin?
Vladamir Putin
What did China try to do to avoid problems Soviets had?
perestroika without glasnost
Name the two types of colonies.
1. administered- those there are just job holders or investors
2. settler colony- majority of settlers are permanent settlers and resident and inhabitants
What year did the first Europeans arrive at South Africa?
1642
Who were the first Europeans to arrive at South Africa?
members of the Dutch East Indian Company
What was the harbor the company created called?
Cape Town
What were the two main streams of immigrants to South Africa?
1. Dutch (Boers, later Afrikaners) from mid-1600s
2. English, from 1820
How did the Dutch lose Cape Town?
they allied with Napoleon against England
As a result of hostility between English and the Boers, the Boers moved more inland in what's known as the what?
Great Trek
What were the wars called by which the Africans lost their lands to fleeing Boers?
wars of dispossession
Approximately what percent of South Africa's population was white?
13 percent
What's the racial group in South Africa that is third in size?
coloureds
What indigenous group did the Boers steal cattle from?
Coy-coys
Decedents of the coy-coys whose tribe members were decimated by smallpox, forcing them to associate with Boer society, were known as what?
cape coloureds
What were the two types of coloureds?
1. cape coloureds- grown up in the cape cod area and were decedents of the coy-coys
2. joe bird coloureds- mixed race
What percent of South Africa was cape coloured?
8.5 percent