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12 Cards in this Set

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What is affirmative action?
A term that refers to programs designed to ensure that women, minorities, and other traditionally disadvantaged groups have full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas of life.
What are civil rights?
The right of every person to equal protection under the laws and equal access to society's oportunities and public facilities.
What is de facto segregation?
Segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by the law.
What is de jure segregation?
Segregation that is imposed by law.
What is equality of result?
The objectove of policies intended to reduce or eliminate the effects of discrimination so that members of traditionally disadvantaged groups will have the same benefits of society as do members of advantaged groups.
What is the equal-protection clause?
A clause of the fourteenth amendment that forbids any state to deny equal protection of the laws to any individual within its jurisdiction.
What are equal rights?
The right of every person to equal protection under the laws and equal access to society's opportunities and public facilities.
What is gender gap?
The tendency of womena nd men to doffer in their political attitudes and voting preferences.
What is intermediate-scrutiny test?
A test applied by courts to laws that attempt gender classification.
What is reasonable-basis test?
A test applied by courts to laws that treatindividuals un-equally.
What is the strict-scrutinty test?
A test applied by courts to laws that attempt a racial or ethnic classifcation.
What are suspect classifications?
Legal classifications, such as race and national origin, that have invidious discrimination as their purpose and are therefore unconstitutional.