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27 Cards in this Set

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caucus (nominating)
An alternative to a state primary in which party followers meet, often for many hours, to select party candidates.
congressional campaign committees
Separate committees in Congress for each political party to help members who are running for reelection or would-be members running for an open seat or challenging a candidate from the opposition party.
direct primary
A proposal originated by progressive reformers to open up political parties to their membership. It permits a vote of party members to select the party's nominee in the general election.
economic-protest parties
Parties, usually based in a particular region, especially involving farmers, that protest against depressed economic conditions. These tend to disappear as conditions improve. An example would be the Greenback party.
factional parties
Parties that are created by a split in a major party, usually over the identity and philosophy of the major party's presidential candidate. An example would be the "Bull Moose" Progressive party.
first party system
The original party structure in which political parties were loose caucuses of political notables in various locations. It was replaced around 1824.
ideological party
A political party organization that values principle above all else and spurns money incentives for members to participate.
initiative
A proposal favored by progressive reformers to curtail corruption. It allows a law to be enacted directly by vote of the people without approval of a legislative body.
mugwumps (or progressives)
One of two major factions largely within the Republican party who opposed the heavy emphasis on patronage and disliked the party machinery because it only permitted bland candidates to rise to the top, was fearful of immigrants, and wanted to see the party take unpopular stances on certain issues. They challenged the Old Guard from around 1896 to the 1930s.
national chairman
The person responsible for managing the day-to-day work of a national political party. The person is given a full-time, paid position and is elected by the national committee.
national committee
Delegates from each state and territory who manage party affairs between national conventions. These exist at the national level for both major political parties.
national party convention
The ultimate authority in both major political parties in the United States. The conventions are held every four years to nominate each party's candidate for the presidency.
Old Guard
One of two major factions largely within the Republican party, composed of the party regulars and professional politicians. They were preoccupied with building up the party machinery, developing party loyalty, and acquiring and dispensing patronage. They were challenged by progressives from around 1896 to the 1930s.
one-issue parties
Parties seeking a single policy, usually revealed by their names, and avoiding other issues. An example would be the Free Soil party.
personal following
A type of local party organization in which a candidate gets people to work for him or her for a campaign and then the organization disbands until the next election. To run this type of campaign, a candidate needs an appealing personality, a lot of friends, or a large bank account.
plurality system
An electoral system in which the winner is that person who gets the most votes, even if they do not constitute a majority of the votes.
political machine
A political party organization that recruits its members by the use of tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over members' activities.
political party
A group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label by which they are known to the electorate.
second party system
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
solidary group
A political party organization based on gregarious or game-loving instincts. It survives on the basis of a friendship network.
solidary incentive
An inducement that attracts people out of gregarious or gameloving instincts. It is one reason why people become involved in a state or local party organization.
special-interest caucus
A group within a political party united by a concern over a specific cause. The Democratic party has attempted to assure many special-interest groups representation at its national convention, although lately the party has moved away from this commitment.
sponsored party
A political party organization created or sponsored by another organization. This form of local party organization is rare in the United States.
superdelegates
Elected officials and party leaders represented at the national convention of the Democratic party. Such representation was provided for by a recent party reform to ensure that an electable presidential candidate is selected.
two-party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning.
unit rule
A requirement that all delegates representing a state at a national party convention vote with the majority of their state delegation.
winner-take-all system
An element of the electoral system used in the United States which requires that only one member of the House of Representatives can be elected from each congressional district.