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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
restrictive clauses
limit the possible meaning of a preceding subject
Ex. The suspect in the lineup WHO HAS RED HAIR committed the crime.
nonrestrictive clauses
tell you something about a preceding subject, but they do not limit, or restrict, the meaning of that subject
Ex. The suspect in the lineup, WHO OWNS A RED CAR, committed the crime.
independent clauses
a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.
Ex. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.
dependent clauses
a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.
Ex. When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . .
dependent marker words
after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while
coordinating conjunctions
and, but, or, so, nor, for, yet
a word, phrase, or clause referred to by another expression which precedes or follows it
Ex. The boy who pitched the game is worn out. - "The boy" is the antecedent of "who"
terminology, much like slang, that relates to a specific activity, profession, or group
using an expression not used in formal speech or writing
the subject receives the action expressed in the verb; the subject is acted upon;
The agent performing the action may appear in a "by the . . ." phrase or may be omitted.
Ex. The boy was bitten by the dog OR
a phrase, expression, or idea that has been overused to the point of losing its intended force or novelty, especially when at some time it was considered distinctively forceful or novel
Ex. hasn't a grain of sense
dangling modifiers
a word or phrase that modifies a word not clearly stated in the sentence. A modifier describes, clarifies, or gives more detail about a concept
misplaced modifiers
modifiers that lead to illogical sentences that are difficult to follow
Ex. A small book sat on the desk that Sarah had read
parallel structure
using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance
Not Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.

Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories