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25 Cards in this Set

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Empiracal Data
Data gathered directly from personal experience, experimnetation or observation
intagible resources
things of value that cannot be directly observed and measured
research design
statement of research defines terms specifies propositions. To be tested, lists data needed and how to get them, describes tests to be performed & establsihed a sequence of steps to complete experiment.
Normative Statement
a statement that indicates a preference or value about what ought to happen
Description
information about a single case in some depth r about patterns and trends in a number of cases
explantion
analysis designed to determine why an ecent occurs.
Observation
a collection of information about an event, a person, or an activity.
Case Study
Study of a single unit, usually in some depth
theory
A coherent statement or set of statements that attempts to explain observed phenomena.
narrative research
description of events, drawing on multiple sources of information, to understand more fully what happened
comparative research
systematic comparision of different units to understand their similarities and differnces.
propostion
Statements that two or more factors are related to each other.
hypothesis
A tentative conjecture explaining an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further observation, investigation, and/or experimentation.
concept
abstract term refering to a group of phenomena.
Something understood, and retained in the mind, from experience, reasoning and/or imagination; a generalization (generic, basic form), or abstraction (mental impression), of a particular set of instances or occurrences (specific, though different, recorded manifestations of the concept).
value
characteristic of variable, or amount of characterisitc.
variable
a quantity that may assume any one of a set of values
induction
practice of developing a hypothesis on the basis of our own observations or of studies carried out by others
deduction
Practice of devloping a hypothesis from theory or logic
internal validity
the approximate truth about inferences regarding cause-effect or causal relationships.

To the degree that we are successful in eliminating confounding variables within the study itself is referred
external validity
A study that readily allows its findings to generalise to the population at large
experiment
is a set of actions and observations, performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena.
controlling
examining a relationship for different values of a third, or control, variable.
Quasi- Experiment
A quasi experiment takes place in a field setting but the independent variable is already in place. The experimenter thus manipulates nothing. He or she measures the dependent variable nonetheless. An example of a quasi experiment would be trying to establish a cause-effect relationship between speeding and road traffic accidents. You would find four states in America adjacent to each other. They each have their own state set speed limits. Lets say 50, 55, 60 and 65 mph. These are the various conditions of your IV, which are already established. You would measure your dependent variable being incidence of road traffic accidents.
correlation analysis
he evaluation of the relationship between/among two or more variables.

Correlation analysis is a statistical technique that evaluates the relationship between two variables; i.e., how closely they match each other in terms of their individual mathematical change. The question addressed is: if one variable (X) moves or changes in a certain direction, does the second variable (Y) also move or change in a similar or complementary direction?
Case studies
is a research strategy, sometimes likened to an experiment, a history, or a simulation, though not linked to any particular type of evidence or method of data collection