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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
BIG C CONSTITUTION
*actual document
*Consitution of the US
*generally democratic phenomenon
LITTLE c CONSTITUTION
*sets of rules
*constitutions are everywhere
*not just written
*not only in a democracy
text vs. text-plus
text= it is what it is
text-plus= things may no longer apply now
VAGUENESS OF THE CONSTITUTION
*if vague it can be flexible
*if vague it cannot be clearly understood
LENGTH OF THE CONSTITUTION
*newer constitutions are longer and far more complex
*older ones are shorter
DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF CONSTITUTIONS
*respect for tradition
*amendability= able to change
*incentive compatability
INCENTIVE COMPATABILITY
*avoid the plague of "unintended consequences"
*US legislators and their districts
South Africa (legislators without
REFERUNDUM
* utlized by California
*voters make a choice directly over policy alternatives (raising taxes?)
*people are fickle and cannot make proper choices concerning our policies
*that's why we have elected officials whose sole job is to make policies and important decisions
*time constraints
*concerns about policy coherence
ELECTORAL SYSTEM
*elections are not simple
*they come in all shapes and sizes
*elections are governed by sets of rules
*these rules constitute the electoral system
SMDP
*house of representatives
* 1 representative per district
*plurality (most votes) wins
*winner take all
*encourages a 2 party system
*biased against small parties
*ties legislators to constituents
*can lower voter turnout
*representatives less reflective of representees
*compromise is "frontloaded"
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION
*multiple member districts
*seats divided up proportionetly according to distribution of votes
*encourages the proliferation of parties
*lets minority groups get representation
*sometimes loosens the bond between representatives and constituents
*representatives are more reflective of constituents
*can increase voter turn out
*compromise is backloaded
PARADOX PARTICIPATION
*will your vote actually make a difference
*people feel like they have to perform their civic duty
*its not a "rational" act
*benefits are miniscule to the individual
POLITICAL PARTY
*group of officials or would be officials linked with a sizeable group of citizens into an organization to attain power
PARTIES ARE NOT
*associated with democracies
*associated with electoral activity
*wide variation:versatile tool of modern politcs
How do parties differ from other political groups in democracies?
*paramount in elections
*fulltiime commitment
*mobilize large numbers
*endurance
*politcal symbols
FUNCTION 1: MOBILIZATION
*GOTV campaigns
*other mobilization processes:
-mobilize support
-mobilize protest/opposition
PARTY SYSTEM
*set of all parties
*they come from: electoral law and nature of cleavages in society
ONE PARTY SYSTEM
*only a single party is allowed to be active
*mobilization
*communication
*control
*China and N. Korea
*deal with identity
DOMINANT PARTY SYSTEM
*single party holds power at all time
*BUT other politcal parties are allowed to function openly and with reasonable effectiveness
*Mexico (PRI)
*India and Israel
*having other parties provides a base for criticism of the government
*more debate about politcs than in an one-party system
TWO PARTY SYSTEM
*no one party system can count always holding power but only two parties can normally expect to have a chance to win
*US (democrats and republicans)
MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM
*more than two major politcal parties
*Norway
*most democratic states are multiparty systems
*electoral system will determine whether a state has a multiparty system or a two-party system
*SMPS= 2 party system
*PS= multi-party system
INTEREST GROUP
*organized group of citizens [working to] ensure that the state follows certain policies
*Not parties but are very similar
SELECTIVE INCENTIVE
*give members an incentive for being in the group
*selective b/c it targets selectively to certain member of groups
SECTORAL INTEREST GROUP
*economic interests
*often narrow interests
*dominates most interest group system
*AFCLO
PROMOTIONAL INTEREST GROUP
*coalesce around ideas
*important in US politics and other two party systems
*NAACP
*NRA
*organize around an area or point of view to support
PLURALISM
*groups form, organize, and compete freely
*no one group is able to dominate
*government it open to pressure from the interest groups
*state as "register" responding to interest groups
*PROS:
-spontaneity
-encourages incrementalism
-grassroots-people genuinely represented
*CONS:
-"organize and compete freely" is a myth
NEOCORPORATISM
*state is "hands on" in dealing with interest groups
*interest groups incorporated into government
*PROS:
-encourages cooperation
- solves some of the problems or pluralism- government helps groups organize/get represented
*CONS:
-fragile
-inflexible
SOCIAL MOVEMENT
*informal collective movements of people
*loosely coordinated
*some leaderhsip
*engaged in contentious politics
CHARACTERISITCS OF
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
*potentially quite powerful
*not the same as parties or interest groups
*grassroots or bottom up linkage mechanism
VARIATION OF
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
*Scope
-reform vs. radical
*Type of Change
-innovation vs. conservative
*Target Audience
-group focus vs. individual focus
*Methods
-peaceful vs. violent
*Range
-global vs. local vs. multi-level
-compare to politcal parties which are rooted solely in a country
*Old vs. new
-communication
OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES
*broader politcal system that give social movements advantages
*allie is in government or opposes opposition
*international organization that sympathizes
*losing confidence in a leader