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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
agency loss
discrepency between waht citizens ideally would like their agents to do and how the agents actually behave
agent
someone who makes and impements decisions on behalf of someone else
authority
right to make and implement a decisions
baraining
form of negotiation in which 2 or more parties who disagree propose exchanges and concessions to find a course of acceptable collective action
cabinet
formal group of presidential advisers who head the major deartments and agencies of the federal government. chosen by president, approved by senate
coalition
alliance of unlike-minded individuals or groups to achieve some common purpose such as lobbying, legislating, or campaigning for teh elction of public officials
collective action
action taken by a group of likminded individuals to achieve a common goal
collective goods
goods that are collectively produced and freely available for anyones consumption
compromise
settlement in which each side concedes some of its preferences in order to secure others
conformity costs
difference between what a person ideally would prefer and what the group with which that person makes collective decisions actually does.
constitution
document outlining the formal rules and institutions of government and the limits placed on its powers
coordination
act of organizing a group to achieve a common goal.
delegation
act of one person or body authorizign another person or body to perform an action on its behalf
direct dmocracy
system of government in which citizens make policy decisions by voting on legislation themselves rather than by delegating that authority to their representatives
externalities
public goods or bads generated as a byproduct of private activity
focal point
focus identified by participants wehn coordingating their energies to achieve a common purpose
free rider problem
situation in which individuals can recieve the benefits from a collective eactivity wheter or not they helped to pay for it, leaving them with no incentive to contribute
government
institution and pocedures through which people are ruled
institution
in a democracy, an organization that manages potential conflicts between political rivals, helps them to find mutually acceptable solutions, and makes and enforces societys collective agreements.
majority rule
principle that decisions shuld reflect the preferences of more than 1/2 of those voting
office
subdivision of some government departments that confers on its occupants specific suthority and responsibilites
parlimentary governmetn
form of government in which the chief executive is chosen by the majority party of by a coalition of parties in the legislature
plurality
vote in which the winning candidate receives teh greates number of votes (but not necessarioy a majority-- >50%)
politics
process by which individuals and groups reach agreement on a common course of action even as they continue to disagree on the goals that action is attended to achieve
power
officeholders actual influence with other officeholders and, as a a consequence, over the governments actions
preferences
individuals choices, reflecting economical situation, religious values, ethnic identity, or other valued interests
principle
individual with the authority to make some decisions
prisoners dilemma
situation in which 2 (or more) actors cannot agree to cooperate for fear that the other wil find its interest best served by reneging on an agreement
private goods
benefits and services over which the owner has full control of their use
privatie
prevent a common resource form being over exploited by tying the benefit of its consumption to its cost
public good
goods that are collectivley produced and freely available for anyones consumption
representative government
political system in which citizens select government officials who, acting as their agents, deliberate and commit the citizenry to a course of collective action
republic
form of democracy in which power is vested in elected representatives
seperation of powers
distribution of government powers among several political instituions
simpmle majority
majority of 50% + 1
tragedy of teh commons
situation in whcih group memebers overexploit a common resource, casuing its destrutction
transaction cost
cost of doing political business reflected in teh time and effort required to compare preferences and negotiate compromises in making collective decisions
tyranny
form of government in which the ruling power exploits its authority and permits little popular control