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54 Cards in this Set

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judicial review
the authority of the courts to declare laws or actions of government officials unconstitutional
logrolling
an informal norm of Congress in which members agree to support each other's bills; also called reciprocity
civil case
a case in which individuals sue others for denying their rights and causing them harm
Speaker of the House
the leader and officer of the House of Representatives; chosen by the majority party
criminal case
a case which a government prosecutes a person for violating its laws
authorizations
budget legislation that provides agencies and departments with the legal authority to operate
Warren Court
the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren; activist Court that expanded the rights of criminal defendents and racial and religious minorities
filibuster
a mechanism for delay in the Senate in which one or more members ingage in a continuous speech to prevent the Senate from taking action
presidential immunity
immunity of the president from lawsuits for acts that occur during his term in office and are related to his official responsibilities
cloture
a method of stepping a filibuster by limiting debate to only 20 more hours; requires a vote of three-fifths of the members of the Senate
Habeas corpus
A writ of habeas corpus is a for criminal defendants who have exhusted appeals in state courts to appeal to a federal district court
appropriations
budget legislation that specifies the amount of authorized funds that will actually be allocated for agencies and departments to spend
departments
executive devisions of the federal government
redistricting
the process of redrawing the boundaries of congressional districts within a state to take account of population shifts
Burger Court
the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren Burger. issued important rulings on abortion and sexual discrimination
going public
the process in which Congress or its members carry an issue debate to the public through media; televising floor debates or media appearances by individual members
policy implementation
the process by which bureaucrats convert laws into rules and activites that have an actual impact on people and things
majority leader
the member of the majority party in the House of Representatives who is second in command to the Speaker. Leader of Senate if also chosen by the majority party
spoils system (patronage)
a system in which elected officials appoint their supporters to administrative jobs
oversight
congress's responsibility to make sure the bureaucracy is administering federal programs
jurisdiction
the authority of a court to hear and decide cases
standing committees
permanent congressional committees
Rehnquist Court
the U.S. Supreme Court under chief justice William Rehnquist. Conservative court, still has not overturned most previous rulings
Rules Committee
the committee in the House of Representatives that sets the terms of debate on a bill
executive leadership
the president's control over the bureaucracy in his capacity as chief executive; achieved through budgeting, appointments, administrative reform, lobbying, and mobilizing public opinion
whips
members of the House of Representatives who work to maintain party unity by keeping in contact with party members and attempting to win their support. Both majority and minority party have a whip and assistant whips
Washingtonians
policy makers and opinion elite
casework
the assistance members of Congress provide to their constituents; includes answering questions and doing personal favors for those who ask (also known as constituency service)
whistleblower
an individual employee who exposes mismanagement and abuse of discretion in an agency
Conference Committee
a committee composed of members of both houses of Congress that is formed to try to resolve the differences when the two houses pass different versions of the same bill
independent agencies
government bureaus that are not parts of departments. Their heads are appointed by and responsible to the president
minority leader
the leader of the minority party in either the House of Representatives of the Senate
merit system
a system of filling bureaucratic jobs on the basis of competence instead on patronage
constituency service
the assistance members of Congress provide to residents in their districts; includes answering questions & doing personal favors (also known as casework)
Civil Service Commission
an angency established to curb patronage in the federal bureaucracy and replace it w/ merit system
franking priviledge
the privilege of members of Congress that allows them to send free mail to their constituents
district courts
the trial courts (lower-level courts) in the federal system
reapportionment
the process of redistributing the 435 deats in the Hourse of Representatives among the states based on population changes, occurs every 10 years
Marbury v. Madison
the 1803 case inwhich the U.S. Supreme Court announced the doctrine of judicial review
gerrymander
a congressional district whose boundaries are drawn so as to maximize the political advantage of a party or racial group; bizarre shapes
power to persuade
president's informal power to gain support by dispensing favors and penalties and by using the prestige of the office
pork barrel
funding for special projects, buildings, and other public works in the district or state of a member of Congress.
Provides jobs for constituents and enhance the members' reelection chances
neutral competence
the concept that bureaucrats should be involved or neutral in policymaking and should be chosen only for their expertise-not political affiliation
Seniority rule
the member of the majority party with the longest service on a particular congressional committee becomes its chair; applies most of the time
War Power Act
enacted by Congress to limit the president's ability to commit troops to combat
personal presidency
presidents gain personal power directly from the people and, in return are expected to make sure the people get what they want from government
senatorial courtesy
the custom of giving senators of the president's party a virtual veto over appointments to jobs, including judicial appointments, in their states.
impeachment
process by which Congress can remove presidents, judges, and other civil officers accused of wrongdoing. House decides questions of impeachment; if majority favors impeachment, Senate decides whether to remove the accused or not
going public
Congress or its members carry an issue debate to the public through media
executive orders
rules or regulations issued by the president that have the force of law
courts of appeal
intermediate courts between trial courts (district courts) and the supreme court (U.S. supreme court)
judicial restraint
judges who are reluctant to overrule the other branches of gov't by declaring laws or actions of gov't officials unconstitutional
regulation
regulatory agencies establishing standards or guidelines conferring benefits or imposing restrictions on business conduct
judicial activism
judges who are not reluctant to overrule the other braches of gov't officials unconstitutional