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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Origins of WWI (4 points)
1. Alliance system
2. German drive for naval supremacy
3. Huge standing armies
4. Cult of offensive
Most obvious cause of WWI
Alliance system
Schliefen plan
German offensive into France; failed to defeat France quickly; defence had advantage in trench warfare
why Japan became involved in WWI
- wanted German possessions in China
- allied w/Br. since 1902
- imperialistic intentions
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- ended war between Germany and Russia--closed Eastern Front- 1918
Individual nations that emerged after WWI
Czech, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Suez Crisis; 1956
Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal; France, Britain, and Israel worried about losing access; Pearson suggested sending in UN peacekeeping force
- signaled difinitive end of European colonial power
Vietnam War
Bloody example of colonial empire ending
- US supported S. Vietnam against communist N. Vietnam (which had support of China/Soviets)
- US sent 5000 troops in 1965
- Nixon came to power in '69 and wanted to get States out of Vietnam
- when US left, Vietnam became fully communist
Bay of Pigs invasion
- Castro in power in 1959
- Eisenhower came up with plan to land American spy plane at Bay of Pigs b/c there was a sense that Cubans didn't want Castro in power
- invasion was a failure
-US aware of Soviet missile cites in Cuba from pictures
-US imposes naval blockade
-closest world ever comes to nuclear war
-Soviets withdrew missiles but increase nuclear weapons
Glasnost and Perestroika
Gorbechev's reforms
-Glasnot= openness
- perestroika= economic restructuring
Soviet Union disintegrated-->WHY?
1) containment and cost of nuclear arms race
2) imperial overstretch
3) domestic decline
4) Gorbechev's reforms
5) Democracy and the market
- 1st concept embraced by IR
- origins in liberalism--18th century enlightenment (optimistic)
- social reform/science/education/liberty of individual/build tolerant society
-3 core beliefs-->
-1) states are main actors, but individuals are imp. too
-2) liberalism focuses on the internal characteristics of the state
-3) calculations about power don't mean much--if all states were good, then power wouldn't matter
3 important theories of Liberalism
- world increasingly interdependent economically--more peace-trade-->can't be fighting
- democracies don't go to war against one another (democratic peace theory)
- international institutions reduce likelihood of war
Political idealism--4 beliefs:
1) human nature is good
2) evil not innate to humans--result of bad circumstances
3) social progress is possible
4) main problem of IR is war--preventible
United Nations
- trouble finding location--concern that US would turn away
- 1st meeting 1944
- UN Charter ratified in 1945
- Charter 4X longer than league covenant
- gen. ass. has all member-states w/all equal votes
- need 2/3 majority to pass resolution
- security council--5 perm members, 10 rotating members
- secretariat--incl. sec. gen., and over 500 ppl w/admin duties
- special privilege given to Great Powers
- deeply troubled by funding crisis
- criticized for being bureaucratic and resistant to change
Realism's pessimistic views: (3)
1) treat states as individual actors w/focus on great powers
2) states are influenced by the anarchic nature of the int'l system (external environment)
3) power calculations dominate state's thinking--compete for power=war
How classical realism and structural realism agree (8)
- human nature is essentially evil/selfish
- desire for power is instinctive
-states must follower nt'l interests in anarchic int'l system
-state's interests defined in terms of power
- military power is the most important
- must always question the loyalties of an ally
- int'l orgs can't be relied on for security
- order can only be achieved through a balance of power
Power defn
ability to make others do what they otherwise would not
Hard power defined in terms of:
economic and military power, and technological expertise
soft power:
idea of getting others to do what you want by getting other states to want what you want (carrot vs stick)
-soft power flows from ability to exert hard power
Balance of power:
- a system of order in anarchic system in which states act to ensure that no one state dominates the system--must have system of sovereign states
distinction btwn balance of power and collective security
- balance of power= 2 worlds or more in confrontation
- ad hoc calculations--does this situation affect me? don't see peace of world directly overlapping security interests

-collective security= one world
-states identify their own security with the security of the world
-int'l orgs set response against aggression
3 kinds of polarity
1) unipolar--single hegemon
2) bipolar--2 poles of power
3) multipolar-- 3-7 poles of power
Hegemon defn
one that controls values, trade orgs, system in the world--the world is seen through these state's eyes
why bipolarity promotes peace
- fewer actions= increased certainty
- less prospects for misunderstandings; fewer pts of contention
- multi-polar world led to WWI/WWII
- post WWII--world was bipolar and there was no war during CW in Europe
- more stable b/c more rigid
- multipolar--more likely that powers will be unequal-->imbalance of power
- unipolar--always states that rebel against unipolar system and rise up
How is unipolarity the most stable?
-many regions of the world have experienced long periods of stability under unipolarity
-a hegemon plays role of central gov't
-fewer pts of contact
-decreased security competition
-idea that there won't be war btwn great powers
What is a failed state?
A state that doesn't have any sort of functioning gov't (ex. Somalia)
2 types of deterrence
1) deterrence by denial--convince opponent there is no way they can achieve objectives
2) deterrence by punishment--unacceptable (nuclear) damage in return
what are the 2 basic assumptions of deterrence?
1) deterrence won't work if opponent is irrational
2) deterrence won't work if opponent doesn't take you seriously (need credibility)
What did Bernard Brodie say about deterrence?
up until the nuclear era, the military's purpose was to win war; now with nukes, the military's purpose is to avert wars
What is the rational actor model?
-decisions are made in a rational fashion by decision-makers
-decisions are regarded as the product of largely unified and purposeful process based on considerations of available alternatives aimed at selecting the best option
what is satisficing?
Occurs when decision makers examine their available alternatives until they encounter one that meets their minimum std of acceptibility--they then select that alternative w/out proceeding to examine any further options, even though better ones may be available
describe the organizational process model
-suggests that decisions are the result of the constraints imposed on decision makers by the bureaucratic organizations that execute the decisions of policymakers
-these come in the form of standard operating procedures
-coordination at the top
-each dept. has special responsibility
-no one has exclusive jurisdiction
-require coordination
what is a standard operating procedure?
constraints imposed on decision-makers by the bureaucratic organizations that execute the decisions of policymakers--reflect what an organization is prepared or equipped to do, and limit the range of choices available to the decision maker
describe the bureaucratic politics model
-no real coordination at the top, but rather intense competition throughout
-decision-making outputs reflect a process of the process of competition or bargaining among bureaucratic units with divergent perspectives on the issue
assumptions of the bureaucratic politics model
-those who represent different bureaucratic interests w/in the decision-making structure will hold different views on the issue confronting the decision makers;
-where an individual stands on an issue depends on where that individual sits
What is a game theory?
-derived from a rational actor model
-a branch of mathematics concerned with modelling behavior and outcomes under certain proscribed conditions
elements of game theory
-two or more actors provided with a set of alternative policy choices
- expected utility (payoff or gain) influenced by the decisions of others
-policy choices of the players are influenced no only by their policy preferences but also by their expectations about the policy preferences of others
what are the 4 levels of analysis used to describe state behavior?
-idealism-->internal nature of state
-realism-->structure of int'l system
-classical realism-->nature of individual
-structural realism-->nature of system
what do liberal idealists say about the nature of war?
that it is internal--a world populated by democracies will be a peaceful one
what are the problems with the rational actor model?
1) do not have knowledge about situations
2) how can one really weight costs and benefits?
3) difficult to rank outcomes
4) are cost/benefit analyses really relevant?
Decisions must be made in a larger context. What does this context include? (4)
1) the external environment
2) the internal environment
3) the perceptions of decision makers
4) time constraints
What are the two kinds of games?
1) Zero sum--> loss by one actor considered a gain for the other

2) non-zero sum--> possible for both players to gain, or both to lose something
what are 5 images that decision makers might form of adversaries?
1) enemy image
2) degenerate image (other state entity that can be exploited as inferior)
3) colony image (seen as weaker/exploitable)
5) ally image (one state sees prospect to gain by cooperating with other state)
what are the advantages and disadvantages of decision-making at the group level?
-advantage-->rigorous debate possible--find all flaws; group can promote rationality

-disadvantage--> GROUPTHINK--group interferes w/rationality--dominant view emerges and some are afraid to challenge the decision
International organization defn.:
-formal arrangement transcending nt'l borders and providing institutional machinery
When was the first multilateral treaty?
The conference of Vienna in 1815
Characteristics of IGOs (6)
1) only comprise states
2) created by treaties/have legal status in int'l law
3) regular meetings--delegates representing home countries
4) permanent headquarters
5) permanent personnel--not supposed to represent interests of particular country
6) historically set for different reasons--to ensure trade and good relations, to maintain peace and security
what is an NGO?
-any entities that operate trasnationally (1+ boundary)
-not representing gov't in world affairs
What does international organizations theory say?
1) functionalism-->integration theorists have talked about the gradual supranational cooperation btwn states
-technical cooperation among nation-states
--the world of the 20th century getting increasingly complicated-->issues deman cooperation across state boundaries can't be left to politicians who don't understand

2) Neo-functionalism-->stressed the role of mutual self-interest in the construction of institutions whose success would "spill over into other areas of interaction"
What is regime analysis?
-stems from neoliberal preoccupation with interdependence--to cope with this, states form regimes
- a regime is a set of norms, principles, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors' expectations converge
-What causal facts are intervening variables in regime analysis?
int'l circulation and behavior of leaders
Explain the security regime
-regularized cooperation of behavior in issues relating to nt'l security
-the security of the state is dependent on the security of other countires
-encompasses limited number of states that share a common interest
-Three main perspectives on the question of the role of IGOs:
1) Realists: IGOs are seen as mere instruments of foreign policy: they are little more than political arenas in which members (states) pursue their self-interests

2) Liberal institutionalism: IGOs seen as intervening variable; that is, IGOs and int'l regimes intervene btwn causes and outcomes in world politics--have ltd influence in global politics

3) Functionalism: IGOs seen as autonomous and influential actors, able to command their own resources and significantly alter the int'l system
what is the law of nature?
-derives from human reason and has to be enacted by proper authority (Thomas D'Aquinas)
What is the central question of int'l law?
-the achievement of global stds that can be applied w/in the context of respect for the individualism of different localities and geographic areas of the world
What sources is int'l law derived from?
-treaties--> most imp b/c seen to bind states to agreements (UN Charter most imp)

-legal scholarship
-what can be done if a state rejects or deliberately disobeys int'l law?
-subject to reprisals--> actions that would have been illegal under int'l law may be legal if taken in response to illegal actions of another state
What is the problem with reprisals?
-they are not carried out on a consistent basis
What are the causes of war (divided into levels of analysis)-10-
1) biological/psychological
2) frustration
3) behavioral
4) feminist
5) nationalism
6) social/political character of state
7) systemic
8) gain control of territory/acquire wealth/preserve monarchy/spread ideology/reprisals against gov'ts for past injuries
9) preventative
10) history osculates
What are the causes of intrastate conflict?
1) structural--state not capable of addressing ppl's needs
2) grievances--political
3) economic--structural inequalities
4) historical grievances--propaganda from leaders
5) leadership characteristics--opportunistic politicians
6) desire for autonomy
Describe the ICJ
-principal organ of the UN
-cases brought before ICJ voluntarily when both states seek a ruling
-provides advisory opinions at request
-1/3 states have signed Optional Clause--which gives Court unconditional jurisdiction
What are chapter 6 and chapter 7 of the UN Charter?
Ch. 6-->pacific way to settle war
Ch. 7-->collective security
What are chapter 6 and chapter 7 of the UN Charter?
Ch. 6-->pacific way to settle war
--calls on member states to resolve their disputes through negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement

Ch. 7-->collective security
--may take military action--incl. demonstrations, blocakade, and other
Principles of peacekeeping
1) consent of parties involved
2) support of security council
3) force composition
4) no great power forces could be involved
5) impartiality
6) use of force in self-defense
Changes in peacekeeping brought on by end of CW (5)
1) number of missions increased dramatically
2) change from addressing inter-state conflict to addressing intra-state conflict
3) size of mission increases
4) composition changed (mil and civilian personnel)
5) new tasks--post CW missions
-attempt to make UN peacekeeping more effective
-Cda and others set up a rapidly deployable peacekeeping operation
-Standing High Readiness Brigade
Stag Hunt Allegory
-5 hunters
-no gov't/social structure
-hunters have choice--> can cooperate to attain mutually desired goal, or defect from such cooperation if their own indiv. short term need can be satisfied
-hunters must collaborate to capture stag
-if one hunter encounters a hare, he could defect b/c the hare will satisfy his own needs, but the hunt will be ruined for the other hunters
-is it not in the rational self-interest of the hunter to take the hare?
-illustrates difficulty of establishing cooperation in an anarchic environment
what is humanitarian intervention
-sovereign states have responsibility to protect their own citizens from avoidable catastrophe, but if state unable to do so, then int'l community has that responsibility
What are the goals of economic sanctions?
-force state to alter behavior
-send msg to other states to not undertake such behavior
-increse own domestic support on certain issue
why are economic sanctions so attractive?
-not a lot of choices as to how you can modify a state's behavior
-sanctions seem credible b/c 1) they could potentially hurt state A who may want to trade 2) not too risky