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224 Cards in this Set

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what is the most common species of hamster kept as pets?
Syrian (Golden) Hamster
what is the long-haired variety of Syrian (Golden) Hamster called?
Angora or "teddy bear" Hamster
what is the lifespan of the hamster?
2-3 years
comment on the anatomy of the hamster:
- hair
- tail
- nose
- ear
- eyes
- short hair
- most species have a short tail
- short, blunt nose
- small, rounded ears
- dark eyes; albinos have red eyes
comment on the anatomy of the hamster stomach
proximal non-glandular portion and distal glandular portion
why are hamsters very sensitive to antibiotics?
because they are cecal fermenters and antibiotics can kill the normal flora
comment on the cheek pouches of hamsters
- natural function
- how do you visualize them on exam
- why are they used in biomedical research?
- used to transport food and nest material
- they can be everted (n.b. you cannot evert the cheek pouches of a gerbil)
- they are used in research because they are an immunoprivileged site and tolerate xenografts, cancer cells, etc.
what is the dental formula for hamsters, mice, and rats?
I (2/2); C (1/1); P (2/2); M (3/3) = 16
what is the difference between the stomach of a hamster and a rat/mouse?
greater demarcation between glandular and non-glandular portion
hamster scent glands:
- where are they located?
- what type of glands are they?
- sexual dimorphism
- function
- they are located on the flank
- the scent glands are sebaceous glands
- both males and females have them, but they are only functional in males
- they are involved in marking territory and mating behavior
why would a pet hamster have a wet, discolored area in its flank?
this is the scent gland
hamster behavior:
- what type of habitat do they create for themselves in the wild?
- when are they active?
- why shouldn't your toddler pick up "fluffy" when he is sleeping?
- what gender is considered to be more aggressive?
- hibernation
- they are burrowers (nesters) in the wild
- they have Crepuscular activity - dawn and dusk (they are not nocturnal)
- they are deep sleepers and can be aggressive when disturbed
- females considered to be more aggressive than males
- they are "permissive" hibernators (< 48 °F)
what do hamsters eat?
they are omnivorous - vegetables, seeds, fruits, and meat
how often do hamsters eat and how should you provide food to them?
hamsters eat multiple meals per day and should be fed ad libitum.
how do hamsters obtain additional vitamins in their diet? What vitamins do they get?
hamsters are coprophagous and are thought to obtain extra vitamins B and K this way
how much food do hamsters eat?
8-12 g / 100 g BW per day
how do you feed a balanced diet to a hamster?
buy commercially available formulated diets
how should water be provided to hamsters?
ad libitum
how much water do hamsters drink per day?
8-10 mL / 100 g BW per day
what is an ideal cage in which to keep a hamster?
- escape-proof
- absorbable contact bedding
- food and water containers
- plenty of cage room
- ± running wheel or ball
what are two ways to physically restrain a hamster?
1. cupping in hand or towel
2. scruff the neck and back
how do you sex a rodent?
the anogenital distance is greater in males than in females. First look at the whole litter, then determine each animal
hamster estrous cycle:
- length
- when does estrus start?
- when do they ovulate?
- estrus behavior
- 4 day estrous cycle
- estrus starts at night
- they ovulate on day 2
- they will exhibit lordosis ca. 8 hours prior to ovulation
what is the gestation length and average litter size of the hamster?
- gestation 15-18 days
- litter size: 4-12 pups
which lab animal has the shortest gestation length?
hamster: 15-18 days
why might a female hamster cannibalize her pups?
if she is stressed:
- from handling
- presence of a male (note, remove the male from the cage, not the female!)
how old must a hamster be before you can determine its sex?
1 week
hamster neonates:
- birth weight
- precociousness
- when do they begin eating solid food?
- how much do they weigh at weaning
- birth weight: 2-3 g
- they are altrical: hairless, eyes and ears closed
- start eating solid food at day 7-10
- they weight 35-40 g at weaning
what is the maximum amount of blood that you should collect from a hamster?
0.8 - 1.0 mL
where are four good and two not-so-good places to collect blood from a hamster?
- good: jugular, cephalic, saphenous, mandibular
- not-so-good: retro-orbital, toe nail clip
what is the most important disease of hamsters?
Proliferative ileitis - enteritis; "wet tail"
what are three bacteria that cause wet tail in hamsters?
1. Clostridium difficile
2. Campylobacter fetus ss jejuni
3. E. coli
what are seven clinical signs of wet tail in hamsters?
1. diarrhea
2. lethargy
3. anorexia
4. unkempt coat
5. typhlitis (inflammation of the cecum)
6. dehydration
7. death
what is a common, preventable cause of pneumonia in hamsters?
high ammonia in bedding
what two bacteria are associated with pneumonia in hamsters?
1. Pasturella multocida
2. Streptococcus pneumoniae
how is pneumonia in hamsters prevented and treated?
- prevention: eliminate stress, ↓ densities, change bedding when appropriate (ammonia)
- treatment: antibiotics
what is a common gross pathological lesion identified in hamsters that died of wet tail?
hyperplasia of the ileal epithelium
how is wet tail in hamsters transmitted?
fecal-oral route
how is wet tail in hamsters treated?
Gentamicin PO
what is the most common neoplasia seen in hamsters?
LSA
what are three malignant tumors found in hamsters? Comment on where they are found in the animal
1. lymphosarcoma - viral induced; skin (warts), GI (enteritis), or kidney (pyelonephritis)
2. reticulum cell sarcoma - lymph nodes
3. carcinoma - intestine and adrenal
what are two benign tumors found in the hamster?
1. GI polyps
2. adenomas of the adrenal cortex
what is the primary cause of death in old hamsters?
amyloidosis
what are some clinical signs of amyloidosis in the hamster?
(note, this usually occurs in old hamsters)
- anorexia, weight loss, PU/PD, proteinuria
what organ system does amyloidosis target in the hamster?
kidney
what disease of the hamster is similar to wet tail, is very painful, and is characterized by profuse severe and/or bloody diarrhea and dehydration, with acute mortality?
Tyzzer's disease
what bacteria causes Tyzzer's disease?
Clostridium piliforme
what is a disease of hamsters that may show no clinical sign in the hamster, but may be zoonotic and deadly to humans? What agent causes this disease? Route of transmission?
- lymphocytic choriomeningitis
- LCM virus (Arenaviridae)
- virus spread in urine, droppings, saliva, and nesting material
if a hamster shows clinical signs for lymphocytic choriomeningitis:
- what are the most common clinical signs?
- how long is the course of the disease?
- comment on vertical transmission
- lethargy, anorexia, rough coat, weight loss, death
- may be infected for 8+ months
- can be transmitted to offspring
how would you test for the following parasites in the hamster:
- protozoa?
- pinworms?
- tape worms?
- protozoa: wet smears
- pinworms: scotch tape test
- tape worms: float on feces
why are gerbils illegal in some areas (e.g. California)?
they are considered a pet animal for crops
comment on gerbil size of females versus males
females are generally smaller than males
what is an important difference in the cheek pouches of gerbils versus hamsters?
gerbils cannot have their cheek pouches extruded
what colors a rodent's tears red?
Harderian glands
what is special about the adrenal glands of gerbils?
they are normally very large in comparison to other animals and may be confused for an abnormality PM
where is the scent gland in the gerbil?
the mid-ventral abdomen
what are some differences in the scent gland of a gerbil versus a hamster?
- location - hamster: on the flanks; gerbil: on the mid-ventral abdomen
- in the hamster, they are functional only in males; in the gerbil, both sexes
gerbil behavior:
- what natural behavior should they be allowed to exhibit?
- when are they active?
- comment on hibernation
- temperament
- what is a sign of the gerbil being pissed off?
- they need to burrow (just as hamsters need to nest and Hedgehogs need to root)
- they are active in the day, but mainly at night
- they don't hibernate (versus hamsters, which are permissive hibernators)
- they are docile, but can bite
- a gerbil that is annoyed with life will foot stomp ("thumping")
where are nipples located on the gerbil and how does she nurse her young?
- one pair of inguinal and one pair of thoracic
- pups trade off suckling
gerbil female reproduction:
- estrous cycle length
- gestation length
- average litter size
- litters per year
- estrous: 4-6 days
- gestation 24-48 days (depending on whether she is lactating)
- average litter: 3-7 pups
- 7 litters/year
comment on the precociousness of gerbils at birth?
they have closed eyes, ears, are hairless, and are therefore altrical
what type of diet do gerbils eat?
they are granivorous and omnivorous
why should you avoid seed-based diets in gerbils?
because these diets are low in Calcium
what is the difference between the water needs of a gerbil versus a hamster?
they drink very little water compared to the hamster (they can even live off the water from lush fruits and vegetables that they eat); therefore, they don't need to have their bedding changed as often
what is the best type of bedding material for a gerbil?
wood chips or corn cob
how do you properly restrain a gerbil and what are two improper things to do when handling them?
- scruff the neck and grip BASE of tail
- do not hold animal up-side down with back toward floor
- don't hold by tail alone - possible degloving
what are two good ways and three not-so-good ways to collect blood from a gerbil?
- good: saphenous, mandibular
- not-so-good: retroorbital sinus, toe nail clip, cardiac puncture
what is special about the RBCs of a gerbil
they have a very short lifespan of only 9-10 days
a gerbil presents with a red, raw nose with red forepaws probably has what? Why are his paws red?
- Nasal dermatitis ("red nose")
- paws are stained from the Harderian gland secretions from scratching its face
how is nasal dermatitis ("red nose") treated in the gerbil?
- clean face daily
- topical a/b (e.g. triple antibiotic ointment BID)
how is Tyzzer's disease prevented?
- avoid stress
- frequent cage cleaning, reduced densities, optimal temp and humidity
at what age do gerbils most commonly contract salmonellosis?
3-6 weeks
what is the most common tumor of the gerbil?
ovarian and mammary tumors
what types of neoplasia do gerbils get?
- ovarian and mammary (most common)
- adrenal adenoma and carcinoma
- melanoma
what is a neurological disease, found to be familial, that affects gerbils?
epilepsy
epilepsy in gerbils:
- characterize the seizures
- age of animal
- refractory period
- what triggers seizures?
- prevention
- tonic-clonic; 30 sec - 20 min; variable intensity
- begins at 2 months of age and ↑ in frequency up to 6 months
- 5 day post-seizure refractory period
- stress or startle induced
- prevention by frequent handling, novel environments
how do you treat a degloving injury in a rodent?
dock the tail.
what is the "hibernating gland" in rats and mice? Where is it located? Why is it relevant?
- a deposit of brown fat on the SQ ventral thorax
- rats and mice do not hibernate; it is used to generate heat during cold weather; but most importantly, if not recognized, it may be mistook for a lesion in a PM
what is unique about the brain morphology of rats and mice?
they lack gyri and sulci
what causes rats and mice to secrete "red tears"?
- the tears are from the porphyrin pigments in the Harderian glands of the eye
- secreted excessively in times of stress (e.g. 2-year-old kid, environmental, social, disease)
how large is the liver in rats and mice?
4-5% of BW
comment on the presence of a gallbladder in rats and mice
- mice have a gallbladder
- rats do not
why don't germ-free rats and mice survive?
because cecal fermentation is needed to break down roughage that they eat. If they are germ-free, they will die from a distended intestine
where is the urethra located in male and female rats and mice?
- females: clitoris (in the genital papilla)
- males: penis (in the genital papilla)
describe the ejaculate of a rat/mouse
sperm plug
which four accessory reproductive structures does the male rat/mouse have?
1. paired vesicular glands
2. coagulating glands
3. prostate
4. bulbourethral glands
describe the location and basic anatomy of the rat/mouse penis
- located within the genital papilla (prepuce)
- os penis
what is so special about the testicles of a rat?
since rats have an open inguinal ring, they can withdraw them into the abdomen, like a samurai wrestler
describe the uterus of the female rat/mouse
bicornuate and two cervices: one for each horn
what is unique about the female genitalia of a rat/mouse?
- the clitoris, within the genital papilla (prepuce) contains the urethra
- the vagina is separate and has a membrane when she is immature, but this disappears prior to sexual maturity
describe the number and location of nipples on the rat
- rate have 6 pairs of nipples
- inguinal, abdominal, thoracic, and axillary
describe the number and location of nipples on the mouse
- mice have 5 pairs of nipples
- inguinal, abdominal, thoracic, and axillary (the mammary glands may even extend over the shoulder)
a large mass over the shoulder blade of a female rat or mouse is likely what?
mammary tumor
what is the lifespan of the rat?
2-3 years
what is the lifespan of the mouse?
1.5 - 3 years (2 avg.)
rat/mouse behavior:
- when are they most active?
- which sex is more aggressive?
- if you group house females, how often do they fight?
- nocturnal
- males more aggressive
- females rarely fight in group housing
why might a rat or mouse seem lethargic when brought into your vet practice?
because they are nocturnal animals and will normally be sleeping at this time
mice social behavior:
- what is the major mechanism by which they establish territory and reproduction?
- how do they show that they are socially dominant
- how can the former be a problem?
- pheromones
- they express social dominance by excessive grooming, called "barbering"
- if they lose too much hair, they can traumatize themselves, have hypothermia, etc.
how should rats and mice be fed?
ad libitum
how much food do rats eat?
5% BW/day
how much food do mice eat?
12% BW/day
what are two consequences fo caloric restriction in rats and mice?
1. longer life
2. less reproduction
what are two types of feed for rats and mice?
1. pelleted feed (standard rodent chow)
2. powdered ("mash") feed - lab use
what are four consequences of obesity in rats and mice?
1. CV problems
2. diabetes
3. joint problems
4. shortened lifespan
how much water do rats drink per day?
10-12% BW
how much water do mice drink per day?
15% BW
what are three aspects of the water bottle are important to determine if a client comes in with a sick animal?
1. frequency of cleaning
2. method of cleaning
3. source of the water
how long is the rat estrous cycle? When is heat?
5 days; heat on night of day 3
how long is the mouse estrous cycle? When is heat?
4-6 days; heat on night of day 3
how can you determine the stage of estrous cycle in the rat and mouse?
vaginal lavage and cytology
what is the cardinal sign of estrus in the rat/mouse?
lordosis
what are two ways to determine if a rat/mouse has been successfully bred?
1. presence of a sperm plug
2. sperm in vaginal lavage
what is the gestation length of the rat?
21 days
what is the gestation length of the mouse?
19 days
parturition in rats and mice:
- what signals stage 1?
- how do females stand when delivering?
- presentation of the fetuses
- length of delivery
- what does she do before attending to pups?
- effect of handling/petting during parturition
- periodic stretching and extension of the hind legs signals impending parturition
- dam stand semi-crouched
- fetuses are delivered either head or breech
- 1-4 hour delivery
- she will eat placenta, then tend to young
- handling will drastically increase interval between pups
when do rats and mice wean their pups?
21 days
in rats and mice, what is the Lee-Boot effect?
grouping of females ↑ pseudopregnancies
in rats and mice, what is the Whitten effect?
like the "boar" effect; exposure to a male induces estrus
in rats and mice, what is the Bruce effect?
before implantation of the embryo, exposure to another male will terminate pregnancy
how does grouping of female rats/mice affect pregnancy? What is this called?
- ↑ pseudopregnancies
- Lee-Boot effect
what is the "boar" effect equivalent in mice and rats called?
Whitten effect
if you breed a female rat/mouse and thereafter expose her to a different male, what happens and what is this called?
- she will abort
- called the Bruce effect
(Bruce must be very sexy)
what are two ways to restrain a rat?
1. hold by base of tail (short period)
2. thoracic encirclement
what are two ways to restrain a mouse?
1. hold by base of tail (short period)
2. scruff and hold base of tail
what are three types of containers to restrain rats and mice?
1. rigid plastic holders
2. centrifuge tube
3. Decapi-cone bags (can damage eyes)
where do you give an IM injection in a rat/mouse?
caudal thigh
where do you give an IV injection in a rat/mouse?
lateral tail vein
where do you give an IP injection in a rat/mouse?
lower ventrum
where do you give a SC injection in a rat/mouse?
scruff
where do you give an ID injection in a rat/mouse?
lateral abdomen/thorax
what are four sites to collect blood form a rat/mouse in order from most horrible to least?
1. cardiac puncture
2. retroorbital sinus
3. ventral tail artery
4. jugular vein
how do you force-feed a rat or mouse?
- gavage tube
- tilt their head back in a "sword swallowing" position
how should injectable anesthetics be administered to rats and mice and why?
IP, because "IM" drugs can cause muscle necrosis
what are five ways to assess anesthetic dose in the rat/mouse?
1. reflexes ("toe pinch reflex" should be done on the palm so you don't break their toes)
2. muscle tone
3. depth & rate of respiration
4. HR
5. BP
what is the optimal anesthetic premedication, induction, and post-op dosing regimen for the rat and mouse?
who cares? Look it up!
what is a convenient way to allow rats and mice self-medicate with pain meds?
buprenorphine jello
what are four ideal characteristics of bedding for the rat and mouse?
1. should keep animals dry between changings
2. should not injure the animal
3. animal should not want to eat it
4. no properties that will interfere with research
how does not changing the bedding frequently enough potentially lead to illness and/or variability in research animals?
fumes/odors (ammonia) induce hepatic enzymes
if a rat/mouse has a head tilt, what is most likely wrong?
inner ear infection
which bacteria infect the inner ear of rats and mice?
Mycoplasma and Pseudomonas
what can cause malocclusion of rodents' teeth?
- soft diet
- injury/fracture
- Ca deficiency → loosened sockets
in which rodents are mammary tumors most common?
rats and mice
which mammary tumors of rodents have the poorest prognosis?
ones that affect the genital papilla or anus
what are three viral diseases of the mouse GI system?
1. mouse parvovirus type 1
2. mouse rotavirus [EDIM]
3. reovirus type 3
what are two viral diseases of the mouse respiratory system?
1. pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)
2. Sendai virus
what are clinical signs of Citrobacter infection in the mouse?
1. RECTAL PROLAPSE
2. perianal staining
3. sick mouse signs
4. colonic hyperplasia on PM
a mouse with a rectal prolapse and perianal staining might have what infection?
Citrobacter rodentium
what is the key gross pathologic finding of Tyzzer's disease in the mouse? What is an important differential diagnosis?
- white spots in the liver
- Salmonellosis and Tyzzer's both cause this
what causes Tyzzer's disease?
Clostridium piliforme
what is a common clinical sign of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice?
circling in the cage or spinning like a propeller when picked up by the tail
how do you treat Pseudomonas infections in the mouse?
chlorinate their water or treat it with HCl
what are two common bacterial infections of the respiratory tract in mice?
1. Klebsiella
2. Streptococcus pneumoniae
what are three bacteria that commonly infect the skin of mice?
1. Pasteurella pneumotropica
2. Staphylococcus aureus
3. Corynebacterium spp. (in athymic mice)
what infection may cause a mouse's eyes to bulge out? Why does this happen?
- Pasteurella pneumotropica infection
- retrobulbar abscesses
what are two common parasitic diseases of mice?
1. pinworms
2. fur mites
what is an important viral infection of rats and what are the clinical signs?
- Sialodacryoadenitis Virus [SDAV]
- no saliva, corneal ulceration, glaucoma
- no tears, dry eyes, "red tears"
- weight loss, anorexia
comment on the course and virulence of Sialodacryoadenitis virus in rats
- resolves in 10 days and rats cannot be reinfected
- highly contagious
what is a significant disease of rats that causes red tears, head tilt and circling (otitis media), dyspnea, and chattering?
Murine respiratory Mycoplasmosis [MRM]
what is the pathogenesis of Murine respiratory Mycoplasmosis in rats?
- pulmonary lesions
- proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the bronchi restricts air flow
what causes "pseudotuberculosis" in rats?
Corynebacterium kutscheri
what is a common PM finding of Corynebacterium kutscheri infection in rats?
("pseudotuberculosis")
- Cobblestone appearance to lungs
Comment on Old Rat Nephropathy:
- what is it?
- signalment
- clinical sign
- gross pathology of kidneys
- chronic progressive renal condition in albino rats
- greater prevalence in males
- PU/PD
- enlarged, pale kidneys with numerous cysts
what are four ways to euthanize a rat or mouse?
1. CO2
2. inhalant anesthetic overdose
3. injectable euthanasia agent
4. injectable anesthesia overdose
how many digits does a guinea pig have?
4 digits on the forepaw
3 digits on the hind paw
comment on intubating and gavaging a guinea pig
their mouth does not open very wide, and their teeth get in the way, so it is very difficult
what is the most prominent feature of the guinea pig GI tract? How large is it?
- the cecum
- 15-20 cm long
- 65% of total GI capacity
do guinea pigs have a gall bladder?
yes
describe the penis of the guinea pig
- yes, it's a penis
- os penis
- two stylets at the tip
describe the mammae of the guinea pig
both sexes have inguinal mammae (obviously only the female ones work)
comment on guinea pig urine
it is thick, cloudy, and very alkaline, which makes it corrosive to some metals and can cause pododermatitis if they are walking in it
how do you raise a well-rounded guinea pig?
you have to expose it to many environments, stimuli, and foods early in life because later in life it will reject anything novel
what is the guinea pig diet
strictly herbivorous
how do you feed and water a guinea pig?
ad libitum
what are some good things to feed guinea pigs?
- guinea pig pellets
- grass
- hay
- limited vegetables
what is a unique nutritional requirement of guinea pigs?
vitamin C
what happens to old guinea pig food that makes it sub-optimal?
the vitamin C decomposes
what are two unacceptable forms of bedding for guinea pigs?
- sawdust
- cedar
how do you sex a guinea pig?
- digital pressure to extrude the penis in males
- "Y" shaped opening in females
- DO NOT USE ANOGENITAL DISTANCE in guinea pigs
what is unique about the vaginal anatomy of the guinea pig?
it has a vaginal closure membrane that opens before estrus or parturition, but remains closed otherwise
how do guinea pig mamas squeeze out those big, precocious babies?
prior to parturition, their pelvic symphysis relaxes and separates
when should a guinea pig be bred for the first time and why?
- 6-8 months of age
- if you wait longer than this, they will not be able to separate their pelvic symphysis and will have dystocias (C-section required)
describe guinea pig neonates
- precocious with eyes and ears open and they have teeth
- full hair coat
- eat solid food within hours of birth
what are four ways to obtain blood from a guinea pig?
1. lateral saphenous and cephalic veins
2. jugular vein
3. cranial vena cava - traumatic
4. cardiac puncture - traumatic
what is special about a blood smear of a guinea pig?
they have Kurloff cells, mononuclear leukocytes with oval inclusion bodies
what two bacteria commonly cause respiratory disease in guinea pigs?
1. Bordatella bronchiseptica
2. Streptococcus pneumonia
what predisposes guinea pigs to bacterial respiratory disease?
stress and young age
which antibiotic do you use to treat a bacterial respiratory infection in guinea pigs?
enrofloxacin
what disease, when sub-clinical, is often an underlying cause for other problems
scurvy
why can 1-2 days off Vitamin C cause overt scurvy in guinea pigs?
because these animals are often sub-clinical before overt signs
in a healthy guinea pig, how long does it take to develop scurvy after removal of vitamin C?
2 weeks
what is the primary causative agent of antibiotic-associated enterotoxemia in guinea pigs?
Clostridium difficile
what are some clinical signs associated with antibiotic-associated enterotoxemia in guinea pigs?
hemorrhagic typhlitis, secretory diarrhea, tissue damage
what is a common cause of a sever gram-negative infection of the lower digestive tract of guinea pigs?
use of "unsafe antibiotics
how do you treat antibiotic-associated enterotoxemia in guinea pigs?
with "safe" antibiotics such as sulfa
which guinea pigs are most at risk for urinary calculi?
aged animals
an old guinea pig presents for anorexia, hematuria, dysuria, and hunched posture? What is a non-infectious rule-out?
urinary calculi
what is a pathognomonic clinical sign for ovarian cysts in the guinea pig?
bilateral symmetrical alopecia
how do you treat ovarian cysts in the guinea pig?
OHE
what are the two "types" of pregnancy toxemia in the guinea pig and the basic cause?
- Type 1: pre-eclampsia / circulatory form; vascular changes → ischemia to the uterus
- Type 2: fasting ketosis / metabolic nutritional form; (negative energy balance)
what predisposes guinea pigs to pregnancy toxemia?
- obesity
- stress
- fasting (type 2)
- large fetal loads (type 1)
what causes cervical lymphadenitis in the guinea pig?
Streptococcus zooepidemicus
describe the sugar glider in five words
social, arboreal, nocturnal gliding marsupial
what is unique about the tail of the sugar glider?
it is prehensile
what is a unique feature of the feet of sugar gliders?
they have fused medial opposable toes that are used as a "grooming comb"
what is a skeletal feature of sugar gliders that makes them different from kangaroos
they lack ossa marsupialia (bones that support the pouch)
comment on the ass of the sugar glider
they have a single cloaca that combines the urinary, GI, and genital tracts
what are two ways to restrain a sugar glider?
1. hold head between thumb and middle finger
2. cup animal in both hands
behavior of sugar gliders:
- social
- time of the day that they are active
- how do they determine territory?
- communication
- common destructive behavior
- they must never be kept as a solitary animal
- they are nocturnal and toporous during the day
- they mark territory with scent and urine
- communicate with yaps, chattering, and screams
- will readily chew wooded material
what do sugar gliders eat?
- nectar
- insects, meal worms
- "lead beater's mixture"
- fruits
what should you not feed sugar gliders and why?
nuts, grains, and seeds, because they can cause impaction
why should you avoid newspaper, cedar, and pine as bedding for sugar gliders?
because they contain chemicals that may be poisonous upon ingestion
describe the male reproductive anatomy of the sugar glider
- pendulous scrotum
- bifurcated penis
- testicle attached to abdominal wall
describe the female reproductive anatomy of the sugar glider
- ventral abdominal pouch
- to teats ion pouch
- two vaginae and two uteri
what is a common cause of disease in sugar gliders?
malnutrition
what are three common manifestations of malnutrition in the sugar glider?
1. calcium deficiency
2. cataracts - infants and joeys due to poor nutrition of the mother
3. obesity
what are three common infections in the sugar glider?
- trauma from fighting
- pouch infection - bacteria and yeast
- eye infections
how do you restrain a hedgehog?
- scruff
- have client hold the animal
- hold by the hind legs
what behavior does a hedgehog need to do?
root
what should you never feed to a hedgehog and why?
dairy, because it will give them raging diarrhea
what do hedgehogs eat?
- omnivorous/insectivorous
- mealworms, crickets, worms - need chitin
- fruits and vegetables
- commercial hedgehog food
what is a unique essential nutrient for the hedgehog?
chitin
give some general comments on housing of the hedgehog
- room temp
- large amount of space needed, running wheel
- bedding - newspaper
- they need a place to hide
- water bottle, not bowl
- provide a litter box; don't use clay, use pelleted cat litter
- no wire bottoms because it's hard on the feet
- avoid ramps because they have terrible eyesight
what doe the male hedgehog have that a female hedgehog does not?
a penile button
what is a fairly common genetic defect of hedgehogs?
wobbly hedgehog syndrome