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64 Cards in this Set

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Neville Chamberlain
Prime Minister of UK from 1937 to 1940. He was important in appeasement efforts with Hitler. He was part of the effort that created the Munich Treaty. The Treaty gave much land to Hitler, but in the end would be broken with Hitler's continued expansive efforts.
Breckenridge Long
Head of immigration pre-WWII. He was anti-Semitic and was pretty much left alone. The importance was that the US did not let as many Jewish immigrants in as they would have if someone not antisemetic was in control.
Adolph Hitler
Chancellor of Germany from 1933, and "Führer" (leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. Hitler gained power in a Germany facing crisis after World War I, using charismatic oratory and propaganda, appealing to economic need of the lower and middle classes, nationalism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism to establish a totalitarian or fascist dictatorship. His importance is by far the main force behind WWII and the leader of antisemitism that resulted in over 11 million people.
Dictator of the Soviet Union from about 1928 to his death in 1953. Stalin was a major ally to the US in trying to defeat Germany in WWII. He was involved in multiple conferences in order to try nd decide what should be done with Germany. He was also one of the main players in the Korean War and eventually in the cold war.
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during WWII. He was part of the big three that met during the war to decide the fate of Germany postwar. His importance was key in the leadership during WWII and the breaking up of the different lands including Germany. One of the 3 policemen.
Cordell Hull
He was secretary of state under Roosevelt, a Wilsonian liberal, and an institutionalist. During depression began reciprocal trade agreements of other nations reducing their tariffs if we reduce ours. His importance was in expanding liberal trade and creating greater interdependance amongst nations.
George Marshall
Secretary of State for the US in 1947. His importance was in winning WWII, but mainly establising the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan which was to help integrate Europe and rebuild their economies in an effort to prevent desperation that could lead to another wr.
MacArthur was name the General of the Army by Truman in order to combat the Soviets. During the Korean war he decided that he felt the U.S. should not be on the defense anymore, but should fight back. In an effort to push forward and believing the Chinese would not attack he tried to push the soldiers back to the Yalu River. The Chinese however did enter the war and after MacArthur wanted to nuke the Chinese he was fired. He was important in fghting WWII, but as General was important in the escelation of the Korean War.
General of French army and president of the Fifth Republic. Refused to accept French surrender and instead calling for the continuation of the war against Hitler's Germany. He was also key in restabilizing the French economic policies.
Anthony Eden
Prime Minister of Britain from 1955 to 1957. He belived Nasser was a 2nd Hitler. He joined with the French in an effort to invade Egypt. Eden was important in the Suez crisis because it would turn disaterous and mark the end of Britain and France as the world powers.
Leo Szilard
Was a Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project after escaping from the Nazis. He was an important part of development of the atomic bomb.
Leader of egypt during the Suez Crisis. Nasser's desire to build the Aswan Dam. Agreements could not be met with the US to secure the finances based upon the requirements dealing with Israel. This is when Nasser played a key role in thefuture roles of France and Britain by nationalizing the canal. It would lead to war and the eventual loss of world dominance in France and Britain.
Shah of Iran
Ruler of the Iranian government. The shaw was important in helping to depose Massadegh after he nationalized the Iranian oil. With the support of Roosevelt and help from the CIA the Shah they led a coup that worked in overthrowing the Prime Minister.
Mohammed Mossadegh
Democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran between 1951 and 1953. He was important in that he nationalized the Iranian oil leading to an embargo against them and an eventual coup led by the Shah with the help of the CIA and support of Roosevelt. His overthrow also contributed to the paranoia in the Soviet Union of insiders.
Arbenz Guzman
President of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954. He was important in that he instituted a massive land reform. His first target is the United Fruit company which is American based food company. When they told him they would not give up their land the U.S. government became fearful they would try and nationalize the land like Iran did. Arbenz then was overthrown in a coup with the help of the CIA.
Leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Stalin. He was important as the leader of the Soviet Union in trying to topple the Hungarian Revolution and using de-stalinization in order to concolidate his power.
Francis Gary Powers
an American pilot whose U-2 spy plane was shot down while over the Soviet Union. He was important because his plane getting shot down resulted in the U-2 Crisis of 1960.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
American theoretical physicist that was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. He is important because his research led to the nuclear weapons that would end WWII.
Dean Acheson
Secretary of state under Truman. Saw Soviets as desiring world domination. He is important because he saw Nsc68 is a policy in search of an opportunity. He believed that the opportunity came with the start of the Korean War. NSC68 had found it's opportunity and it was time to push back. He also worked with Truman to push global changes during the Korean war to shut up their critics and capitalize on the chance.
George Kennan
He opposed NSC68 and disagreed with Atchison. He was important because he believed that containment was possible. He did not believe the Soviets were after world domination, but could be contained and seperated from the other communist governments.
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State under Eisenhower. Very anti-colonialist, religious and does not like the atheist communists. Dulles sees Mossadegh’s actions as communist in Iran. He was important in setting policy under Eisenhower against reactionary government and for actionary government.
Allen Dulles
First civilian director of the CIA. He was important because he led the efforts of the CIA to overthrow Massadegh in Iran (1953)and Arbenz of Guatemala (1954).
Harry Morgenthau
Secretary of the Treasury of the United States during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was an important part in creating the War Refuge Board that allowed a lot more Jews into the country and a key player in the postwar Bretton Woods Conference. With his help many Jews were saved during the war and after the war reconstruction could happen quicker.
Chinese Marxist leader. Was important in leading the Chinese Communist Party to victory in the Chinese Civil War. Mao was also important in pressing back against the U.S. in the Korean War after the US did not listen to their warnings.
Chiang Kai-shek
Overall leader of China up to the civil war. He attempted to get rid of the communists, but in the end was forced to flee to Taiwan. He was important because in failing to secure China the Chinese Communist movement, led by Mao, was able to take over.
Harold MacMillan
Became Prime Minister of the UK after Eden. His importance is that he was the one who pulled out of the Suez crisis agreeing to the UN terms in part due to US pressure.
Clement Attlee
Became Prime minister after defeating Churchill. He was key in attending the later stages of the Potsdam Conference that worked to develop postwar Europe and how to break up Germany.
Averell Harriman
One of Harry Truman's advisors along with Forrestal. He was important in the creation of the "iron fence." Truman supported his hardline towards the Soviets in which he pressed the Soviets for more bargaining. It stiffened the Russian determination to control Poland. As a hardliner he felt there wasn't a way of containment with the Soviets.
James Forrestal
One of Harry Truman's advisors along with Harriman. He was important in the administration's build up of nuclear weapons. There was no way out for him except to defeat the Soviets.
Paul Nitze
Director of policy planning at the state department under Truman. His importance is that he was the main author of the NSC-68 document which influenced the US immensely from having a defensive strategy to an offensive one.
Kim II Sung
Was appointed to power by the Soviets when it was realized that unification was not possible. He was important because he attacked South Korea in an effort to take over it and bring the united countries under communist control. This began what would become the Korean war.
Syngman Rhee
Was the first president of South Korea after its liberation. He was the leader of the right-wing movement in the Korean war. Rhee was an important figure because he had cracked down on his own people which made Sung feel he was vulnerable. Rheee made efforts in attacking the North trying to reunite all of Korea. This along with his perceived weakness pushed Sung to attack trying to unite Korea under Communist control.
Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson was President at the start and the end of WWI. He was a major part to creating the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles. He was important because he was the first president who really stood up in favor of democraccy having superiority to other governments, specifically communism.
Who fought on which side in WWII (allied and axis)
Allied=US, Britain, France, USSR, Australia

Axis=Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Casablanca Conference
Held in Casablanca, Morocco, 1943, to plan the European strategy of the Allies during World War II. Present were Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle. Did not go as planned in dealing with the issue of Stalin. Instead it was spent out hacking out postwar Japan and China.
Tehran Conference
Meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill 1943 in Tehran, Iran. First three power conference. Ended up in opening up a second front and a lot of concessions to Stalin in exchange for his war support.
Yalta Conference
The big three met (Soviet Union, UK, and US.) There was a major debate over Poland in the postwar. They decide to break up Germany in what becomes West and East Germany
Stalin also demanded reparations
They also decided with Japan that they would join with Japan on their Eastern front
What ends up happening at Yalta is that by going through China and deal with the Soviets he could avoid China and the Soviets joining in a sort of Communist union.
Many of the deals got circumvented when Roosevelt died and left Truman unprepared.
Potsdam Conference
Third of the big three conferences. 4 policeman idea. Also divided up Germany, talked about Poland, talked about Soviets entering war against Japan in a couple months, and postwar.
Moscow Conference
Two of big three Stalin and Churchill. Discuss postwar powers. Discussed the political difficulties of Poland and agreed on armistice terms for Bulgaria and a joint policy with respect to Yugoslavia
Newfoundland Conference
First of the big three conferences. It discussed postwar . Two of big three, not Stalin. The result of it was the creation of the Atlantic Charter that painted a clear picture of the post-war. The main thing was to make sure barriers were broken down in trade and that all people would have the reight to decide their governments.
Munich Agreement
In 1938the French and British appease Hitler by giving Germany part of Czecholovokia. This was important bcause a week later it led to the Soviets signing a nonagression pact with Germany believing the US was getting ready tofight them
Bretton Woods System, incluing the World Bank and IMF.
Bretton Woods system was established post WWII with the supprt of Roosevelt. It resulted in creating the World bank and the International Monetary Fund. The overall was reconstruct, stabilize and expand world trade.
World Bank
The World Bank was developed after WWII in order to help economic development and poverty reduction.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
It's an international organization developed under the Bretton Woods System in order to facilitte trade and stabilize currencies.
Dumbarton Oaks and setting up the UN
In 1944 he hosted the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, an international meeting that laid the groundwork for the creation of the United Nations. US, Soviet Union, Uk, and Republic of China attended.
Pearl Harbor
The place in which on December 7, 1941 the Japanese suprise attacked the US. The attack was important because just a day after the attack the US entered the war (WWII).
places and times associated with dropping the Atomic bombs on Japan
On the morning of August 6th 1945 the US dropped "little boy" onto Hiroshima Japan.
Three days after Hiroshima (Aug 9th, 1945) the US dropped "Fat Man" over nagasaki.
Warsaw Uprising
It occurred satarting in 1944 struggle during the Second World War by the Polish Home Army to liberate Warsaw from German occupation and Nazi rule. It was importannt because in the war thesoviets were held back from fighting the counteoffensive resulting in the Polish losing and many dead.
Truman Doctrine
A United States foreign policy announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet orbit. It had the implication of beginning a new stance of the US of not being one of containment, but going on the offense.
Marshall Plan
Also takes place in 1947. It was found on the belief that in order for Europe not to fall into communist control it must be stable economically. The administration was given 17 million dollars for this plan. Most of it went to Britain and Germany. In many ways the Marshall Plan was one of the US greatest success. The US received many ideological friends and really did prevent many European nations from falling prey to communism. In time Germany is infused into the economic order. European productivity rises, prices are lower. It sets the stage for 50 years of European recovery. GATT begins and involves 20 nations that receive Most Favored Nation status. This encourages trade and open markets.
You had to ask for the money
You had to support open market trade
The CIA is created.
Eisenhower Doctrine
It was the policy adopted by President Eisenhower. that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms. It was a key in the US response to the Suez canal and the attempts to attempts to steer the Soviets away from the Suez crisis.
CIA overthrow of Iran
When the Mossedegh cam einto power he nationalized the Iranian oil. This upset he British who did not like losing control over the oil. This along wth the US strategic goal of creating a buffer zone from the Soviets led to the operation to overthrow Iran. With the hlp of the Tudeh Party the CIa led a coup on the overnment and overthrew them restoring the Shaw to power.
CIA overthrow of Guatemala
Arbenz rise to power war marked by a desire to have more control over the land. One main area was desiring reallocate the land and use more of the US owned United Fruit Companie's land. The UFC however would not allow this to go forward and Eissenhower feared Arbenz might nationalize the land like Masedegh had in Iran. This event is very important because it teaches any other leaders that the government and the military must be one and the same.
Castro united his military into one group to make sure the military could not be used against him.
This leads into one of the main reasons for why the Bay of Pigs fails. The military was supported by Castro and so they were not able to infiltrate and get rid of Castr
The crisis began in 1957 with the Soviet launchin of Sputnik 1 satellite. It was important because up to this point the US believed to be winning in space technology. It mrked a change and rise for the US is spending on technoloical advancements and NASA.
Report that was written under Truman's administration in 1950. Said that the world view called for a buildup of weaponry. It had a major effect that it balanced powers. This document emphasized this stark bipolar world. U.S. v. Soviets. (p. 103) The U.S. should undermine the Russians form within.
Development of hydrogen bomb
Mobilization of American society
Build a strong alliance with others
“policy in search of an opportunity”
The result was that the US believed communism was united and no longer could afford a containmen policy.
Gaither Report
Presented to Eisenhower in 1957. It dealt with the case of nuclear attack. It was important because it contributed to the idea that there was no cntainment with the Soviet union and the US must be reeady for an attack.
Berlin Crisis, 1947-8
The soviets cutoff access to west Germany and the US airlifted supplies to West Germany for about a year until the Soviets got the bomb and stopped.
Berlin Crisis 1958-9
Eisenhower did not want to reinstitute airlifts so he invited kruschev staff if he dropped it to tour the US. This was the beginning of the Cold War crisis.
Hungarian Crisis
Once Stalin dies there are multiple riots to push for new economic conditions.
Crustaff wants to consolidate his power so he criticizes Stalin greatly and it signals that maybe people can change things.
One main way he believes to do this is to combine agriculture. This wipes out 20-30 million people due to starvation. He realizes he needs to dismantle this policy.
The opposition in Hungary grows unlike most other places. You begin to see fragmentation in the Soviet Bloc. You see the Proletariat rising up against the repressive communist regime. Crustaff has to go In and military suppress the opposition.
Eisenhower decided to not step in because of concerns coming from the Suez situation and the belief on inaccessibility. The importance is in showing how the US had to pick between their interests.
U-2 Crisis
Occurred in 1960 when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. Gery powers was the pilot of the plane and it was beleived he had died. In fat he had not died and the incident hurt US Soviet relationships even more.
Evolution of American nuclear strategy (Deterrence, MAD, etc.)
Containment when the US first got the nuclear weapon. With NSC-62 in the Truman administration it creates the military build up trying to overpower the Soviets, this merged into a feeling of deterrance and Mutally Assured Destruction.
Charles De Gaulle
Bitterly fought Americans trying to maintain his colonies and diplomatic freedom of action. The US wanted the French to join the world market in exchange for any financial help.
Came into office after FDR's death. Was not clear on the agrrements that had been made previously. His policies of standing up against the Russians would end up shaping a much stronger determination for the Russian's to control Poland. It also resulted in the NAzi-Soviet pact. Truman also at Potsdam threatened the Soviets with their new atomic weapon. This pressed the Soviet science forward. Truman was important in all of this and the decidion to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rough relationship between the two would only get worse into the Coldwar.
Korean War
The US under the truman administration saw the Korean war as a battle against Russian communism. In actuality it was a battle between left and right-wing Koreans. When the North entered the war attacking South Korea Truman believed the Soviets were behind it. This along with the NSC-68 document came out, Truman believed that communism was trying to spread. It was believed that North Korea, China, and Russia were all part of the same communist body, desiring world domination. This with the fear of the endangerment to Japan pushed the US into the war. The Korean war would be used for global pushes, not just for pushes against Russia. It would eventually end up falling apart when the US pushed the North back to the 38th parallel but MacArthur decided to push it further. This brought the Chinese into the war and pushed the US back to the 38th parallel.