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133 Cards in this Set

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QUALITY
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Project Quality Management
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The processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
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Quality
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The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Conformance to requirements or specifications.
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Grade
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A category or rank given to entities having the same functional use, but different requirements for quality.
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Conformance to Specifications
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Project must produce what it said it would produce
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Fitness for Use
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The product or service produced must satisfy real needs.
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Processes (8)
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1.      Quality Planning
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Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.
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2.      Quality Assurance
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Evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
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3.      Quality Control
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Monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Process through which measure quality performance, compare it with quality goals and act on the difference.
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Quality Planning (8.1)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Quality policy
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Is the overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard to quality, as formally expressed by top management. Project management team is responsible for ensuring that the project stakeholders are fully aware of it.
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b.      Scope statement
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c.       Product description
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Developed in the Project Scope section, contains details that may affect the quality planning process and identifies performance expectations.
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d.      Standards and regulations
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e.       Other process outputs
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Benefits/cost analysis
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Primary benefit of meeting quality requirements is less rework, which means higher productivity, lower costs and increased stakeholder satisfaction.
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b.      Benchmarking
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Involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects in order to generate ideas for improvement and to provide a standard by which to measure performance.
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c.       Flowcharting
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Is any diagram, which shows how various elements of a system relate. Techniques used are:
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1)      Cause and effect diagrams (Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams) illustrate how various causes and sub-causes relate to create potential problems.
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2)      System or process flowcharts show how various elements of a system interrelate.
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d.      Design of experiments
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An analytical technique, which helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome. An appropriately designed “experiment” will often allow determination of an optimal solution from a relatively limited number of cases. Sensitivity analysis
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Quality management plan
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Should describe how the project management team will implement its quality policy.
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b.      Operational definitions
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An operational definition describes, in very specific terms, what something is, and how it is measured by the quality control process. Referred to as metrics.
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c.       Checklists
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A structured tool, usually industry or activity specific, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.
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d.      Inputs to other processes
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Quality Assurance (8.2)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Quality management plan
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b.      Results of quality control measurements
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c.       Operational definitions
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.       Quality planning tools and techniques
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b.      Quality audits
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A quality audit is a structured review of other quality management activities. Independent structured review of quality management activities per a performance standard.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Quality improvements
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Includes taking action to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project to provide added benefits to the proper stakeholders.
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Quality Control (8.3)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Work results
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b.      Quality management plan
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c.       Operational definitions
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d.      Checklists
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.       Inspection
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Involves activities such as measuring, examining, and testing undertaken to determine whether results conform to requirements. Also referred to as reviews, product reviews, audits and walk-throughs.
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b.      Control charts
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Control charts are a graphic display of the results, over time, of a process. They are used to determine if the process is “in control.” When a process is in control, the process should not be adjusted. The process may be changed in order to provide improvements, but it should not be adjusted when it is in control.
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c.       Pareto diagrams
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A Pareto diagram is a histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by type or category of identified cause. Rank ordering is used to guide corrective action – the project team should take action to fix the problems that are causing the greatest number of defects first. Works on 80/20 rule – 80% of the problems caused by 20% of the activities.
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d.      Statistical sampling
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Statistical sampling involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection. Appropriate sampling can often reduce the cost of quality control
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e.       Flowcharting
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f.        Trend analysis
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Involves using mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Quality improvement
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b.      Acceptance decisions
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c.       Rework
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Rework is action taken to bring a defective or non-conforming item into compliance with requirements or specifications. Rework, especially unanticipated rework is a frequent cause of project overruns in most application areas.
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d.      Completed checklists
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e.       Process adjustments
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Involves immediate corrective or preventive action as a result of quality control measurements.
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W. Edward Deming
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·        Statistical compliance
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·        Cycle of improvement – Act / Plan / Do / Check
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Joseph M. Juran
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·        Adherence to specifications
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·        Fitness for use
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Philip Crosby
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·        Conformance to requirements
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·        Quality comes from prevention
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·        Performance standard is “zero defects”
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·        Measured by the cost of nonconformance
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Genichi Taguchi
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·        Quality is designed, not inspected into a product or service
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·        85% of failures occur in the process, not with the worker
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·        Cost of quality is a function of the deviation from the standard
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Types of Control Charts
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·        Runs
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·        Trends
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·        Periodicity
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·        Hugging the center line
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·        Out of control
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Standard Deviation Values
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·        1 S.D. = 68.26%
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·        2 S.D. = 95.46%
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·        3 S.D. = 99.73%
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Responsibility for Quality
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·        Primary responsibility for quality is with the project manager
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·        Quality is not an assignable task. It must be rooted and institutionalized in every process.
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·        It is the system that causes the problems – and that is management’s responsibility.
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Costs of Quality Assurance
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·        Prevention – Associated with design and planning of a quality control program
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·        Appraisal – Involved in the direct appraisal of the quality both in the field and plant.
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·        Internal Failure – Directly related to the occurrence of defection production within the plant or operation
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·        External Failure – Associated with the failure of a product or service in the field.
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Contract Close-Out (12.6)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Contract documentation
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Includes but is not limited to, the contract itself along with all supporting schedules, request and approved contract changes, any seller-developed technical documentation, seller performance reports, financial documents and the results of any contract-related inspections.
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.       Procurement audits
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Is a structured review of the procurement process from procurement planning through contract administration. The objective of a procurement audit is to identify successes and failures that warrant transfer to other procurement items on this project or to other projects.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Contract file
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A complete set of indexed records should be prepared for inclusion with the final project records.
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b.      Formal acceptance and closure
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The person responsible for contract administration should provide the seller with formal written notice that the contract has been completed.
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