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116 Cards in this Set

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INTEGRATION
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Project Integration Management
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Processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated.
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Integration Management (4)
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1.      Project Plan Development
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Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document that can be used to guide both project execution and project control
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2.      Project Plan Execution
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Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein. The vast majority of the project’s budget will be expended in performing this process.
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3.      Overall Change Control
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Is concerned with
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a.       Influencing the factors which creates changes to ensure that changes are beneficial
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b.      Determining that that a change has occurred
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c.       Managing the actual changes when and as they occur.
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Overall changes control requires:
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·        Maintaining the integrity of the performance measurement baselines – all approved changes should be reflected in the project plan, but only project scope changes will affect the performance measurement baselines.
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·        Ensuring that changes to the product scope are reflected in the definition of the project scope.
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·        Coordinating changes across knowledge areas
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Project Plan Development (4.1)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Other planning outputs
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All of the outputs of the planning processes in the other knowledge areas are inputs to developing the project plan.
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b.      Historical information
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The available historical information should have been consulted during the other project planning processes.
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c.       Organizational policies
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Any and all of the organizations involved in the project may have formal and informal policies whose effects must be considered. Included as organizational policies are;
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·        Quality management
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·        Personnel administration
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·        Financial controls
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d.      Constraints
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Are factors that limit the project management team’s options.
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e.       Assumptions
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Are factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain.
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Project planning methodology
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Project planning methodology is any structured approach used to guide the project team during development of the project plan.
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b.      Stakeholder skills and knowledge
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Every stakeholder has skills and knowledge, which may be useful in developing the project plan
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c.       Project management information system (PMIS)
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A project management information system consists of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of the other project management processes.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Project plan
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The project plan is a formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution. The project plan is a document or collection of documents that should be expected to change over time, as more information becomes available about the project. The performance measurement baselines represent a management control that will generally change only intermittently and then generally only in response to an approved scope changes. It should be distributed to all people defined in the communication management plan.
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b.      Supporting details
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Supporting detail should include:
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·        Outputs from other planning processes not included in the project plan
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·        Additional information generated during development of the project plan
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·        Technical documentation such as requirements, specifications and designs
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Project Plan Execution (4.2)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Project plan
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b.      Supporting detail
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c.       Organizational policies
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d.      Corrective action
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Corrective action is anything done to bring expected future project performance into line with the project plan.
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      General management skills
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General management skills such as leadership, communicating, and negotiating are essential to effective project plan execution.
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b.      Product skills and knowledge
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The project team must have access to an appropriate set of skills and knowledge about the project product. The necessary skills are defined as part of planning (especially resource planning) and are provided through the staff acquisition process.
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c.         Work authorization system
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A work authorization system is a formal procedure for sanctioning project work to ensure that work is done at the right time and in the proper sequence. The primary mechanism is typically a written authorization to begin work on a specific activity or work package. The design of the work authorization system should balance the value of the control provided with the cost of that control.
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d.         Status review meetings
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Status review meetings are regularly scheduled meetings held to exchange information about the project.
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e.          Project management information system
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f.           Organizational procedures
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Work results
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Work results are the outcomes of the activities performed to accomplish the project. Information on work results – which deliverables have been completed and which have not, to what extent quality standards are being met, what costs have incurred or committed is collected as part of project plan execution and fed into the performance reporting process.
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b.      Change requests
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Change requests are often identified while the work of the project is being done.
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Overall Change Control (4.3)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Project plan
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b.      Performance reports
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Performance reports provide information on project performance.
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c.         Change requests
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Change requests may occurs in many forms – oral or written, direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally mandated or optional.
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Change control system
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A change control system is a collection of formal, documented procedures that defines the steps by which official project documents may be changed. It includes the paperwork, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes.
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b.      Configuration management
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Configuration management is any documented procedure used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to:
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·        Identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of an item or system
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·        Control any changes to such characteristics
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·        Record and report the change and its implementation status
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·        Audit the items and system to verify conformance to requirements
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Configuration management is a subset of the change control system and is used to ensure that the description of the project’s product is correct and complete.
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c.       Performance measurement
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Performance measurement techniques help to access whether variances from the plan require corrective action.
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d.      Additional planning
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Project seldom run exactly according to plan. Prospective changes may required new or revised cost estimates, modified activity sequences, analysis of risk response alternatives
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e.       Project management information system
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Project plan updates
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Project plan updates are any modification to the contents of the project plan or the supporting detail. Appropriate stakeholders need to be notified as needed.
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b.      Corrective action
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c.       Lessons learned
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The causes of variances, the reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned should be documented so they become part of the historical database for both this project and other projects.
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Basic Tenet
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Plan the Work & Work the Plan
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Work Authorization System
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Work package directs what is to be done, when it is to be done, how much budget is allocated for the task, who is to do it.
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Performance Reports
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·        Status – Where the project now stands. Is not an event
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·        Progress – What has been accomplished
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·        Forecasting – Predicting future status and progress
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Demming Circle of Action (PDCA)
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·        Plan
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·        Do
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·        Check
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·        Act
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Ability to see the big picture and analyze the project environment.
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