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133 Cards in this Set

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COMMUNICATIONS
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Project Communications Management
Processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information.
timely, generation, collection, dissemination, storage --- email to DD
Processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information.
Project Communications Management
DD
Project Communications Management (10)
Communication Planning, Distribution, Performance reporting, Administrative Closure
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1.      Communication Planning
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Involves determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders: who needs what information, when will they need it and how will it be given to them.
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2.      Information Distribution
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Process of making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
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3.      Performance Reporting
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Involves collecting and disseminating performance information in order to provide stakeholders with information about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives. Included are:
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a.       Status reporting – Describes where the project now stands
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b.      Progress reporting – Describes what the project team has accomplished
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4.      Administrative Closure
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The project or phase, after achieving its objectives or being terminated for other reasons, requires closure. Administrative closure consists of verifying and documenting project results to formalize acceptance of the product by the sponsor, client, or customer.
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Communications Planning (10.1)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Communications requirements
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Is the sum of the information requirements of the project stakeholders.
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b.      Communications technology
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Technologies or methods used to transfer information back and forth among project elements can vary significantly.
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c.       Constraints
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d.      Assumptions
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Stakeholder analysis
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The information needs of the various stakeholders should be analyzed to develop a methodical and logical view of their information needs and sources to meet those needs.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Communications management plan
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Plan contains the following elements:
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1)      Collection and filing structure – Details what methods will be used to gather and store various types of information.
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2)      Distribution system – Details to whom information will flow and what methods will be used to distribute various types of information.
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3)      Description of the information to be distributed – Including format, content, level of detail, and conventions/definitions to be used.
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4)      Production schedules – Shows when each type of communication will be produced.
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5)      Methods for accessing information between scheduled communications
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6)      Method for updating and refining the communications management plan
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Information Distribution (10.2)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Work results
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b.      Communications management plan
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c.       Project plan
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Communication skills
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Skills are used to exchange information, which can have many dimensions:
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1)      Written and oral
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2)      Internal and external
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3)      Formal and informal
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4)      Vertical and horizontal
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b.      Information retrieval systems
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Information can be shared by team members through a variety of methods.
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c.       Information distribution systems
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Project information may be distributed using a variety of methods.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Project records
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May include correspondence, memos, reports and documents describing the project.
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Performance Reporting (10.3)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Project plan
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b.      Work results
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Work results – which deliverables have been fully or partially completed, what costs have been incurred or committed, etc. are an output of project plan execution.
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c.       Other project records
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Contain information pertaining to the project context that should be considered when assessing project performance.
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Performance reviews
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Meetings held to assess project status or progress.
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b.      Variance analysis
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Involves comparing actual project results to planned or expected results.
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c.       Trend analysis
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Involves examining project results over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating.
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d.      Earned value analysis
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Earned value analysis is the most commonly used method of performance measurement. Key values are:
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1)      Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS) – That portion of the approved cost estimate planned to be spent on the activity during a given period.
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2)      Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) – Total of direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on the activity during a given period.
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3)      Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) – Percentage of the total budget equal to the percentage of the work actually completed. Also known as Earned Value.
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Performance measures include:
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1)      Cost Variance = BCWP – ACWP
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2)      Schedule Variance = BCWP - BCWS
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3)      Cost Performance Index = BCWP / ACWP
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4)      Schedule Performance Index = BCWP / BCWS
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e.       Information distribution tools and techniques
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Performance reports
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Organize and summarize the information gathered and present the results of any analysis.
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b.      Change requests
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Analysis of project performance generates a request for a change to some aspect of the project.
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Administrative Closure (10.4)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Performance measurement documentation
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All documentation produced to record and analyze project performance.
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b.      Documentation of the product of the project
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Documents produced to describe the product of the project.
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c.       Other project records
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Performance reporting tools and techniques
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The information needs of the various stakeholders should be analyzed to develop a methodical and logical view of their information needs and sources to meet those needs.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Project archives
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A complete set of indexed project records should be prepared for archiving by the appropriate parties.
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b.      Formal acceptance
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Documentation that the client or sponsor has accepted the product of the project (or phase) should be prepared and distributed.
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c.       Lessons learned
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Communication should be aimed at producing one or more of the following responses:
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1.      Understanding the exact meaning and intent of others
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2.      Being understood by others
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3.      Gaining acceptance for yourself and/or your ideas
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4.      Producing action or change
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Effective Presentation (ABC)
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1.      Abstract – Introduction
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2.      Body – Explanation.
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3.      Conclusion – Summary
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Total Message Impact = Words (7%) + Vocal Tones (38%) + Facial Expressions (55%)
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Communication Macro Barriers
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1.      Amount of Information
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2.      Lack of Subject Knowledge
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3.      Cultural Difference
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4.      Organizational Climate
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5.      Number of Links
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3 Channels of Communication
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1.      Upward – Primarily contains information that higher management needs to evaluate the overall performance of the projects for which they are responsible, or to refine organizational strategy.
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2.      Downward (Vertically or diagonally) – Provides direction and control for project team members and other employees and contains job-related information.
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3.      Laterally (Peers) – Flows between the project manager and his peers: functional managers, line/staff personnel, other project managers, contractors, subcontractors, clients, service/support personnel and other project stakeholders. It involves negotiating resources, schedules, and budgets and coordinating activities with contractors, regulatory agencies and clients as well as developing plans for future operating periods.
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Number of Communication Channels
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n (n-1) / 2
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Communication Process
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Sender
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Responsible for making the information clear, unambiguous and complete so that the receiver can receive it correctly.
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Receiver
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Is responsible for making sure the information is received in its entirety and understood correctly.