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290 Cards in this Set

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Functional Organization
-- PM Has Low authority
-- No Budget control
-- Functional Managers Have authority and control
What are the Characteristics of a Project?
-- Temporary (defined start and finish)
-- Unique (you start with nothing when you start the project)
-- Progressive Elaboration (developing in steps and continuing by increments)
Similarities
Project vs. Operational Work
-- Performed by people
-- Constrained by Limited Resources
-- Planned, executed and controlled.
Differences
Project vs. Operational Work
-- Projects finish once objectives are attained

-- Projects are undertaken at all levels of the organization

-- Operations changes it's objectives and continues on
What is the relationship between Projects and Strategic Planning?
-- Projects are a means of organizing activities that can't be addressed within the standard company framework.

-- Projects are used as a means of achieving an org.'s strategic plan.
What Five Strategic Considerations may result in authorization of a project?
-- Market demand
-- Organizational need
-- Customer Request
--Technological Advance
-- Legal Requirement
Define Project Management
The applicaton of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements

-- Goes beyond "on time/on budget": Stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations and functional value are included in the definition.

4 Elements:
-- ID requirements
-- Establishing clear and achievable objectives
-- balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time, and cost
--Adapting the specs, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders.
What is the Triple Constraint?
Why is it important?
-- It is a triangle with a side for each scope, time, and cost.
-- In the center is quality.
-- You can't affect one side without impacting the other two.
-- Project quality is affected by the balance of the three sides.
What is Project Risk?
An uncertain event or condition that can have a positive or negative effect on at least one project objective.
Are PM Processes Linear or Iterative?
They are iterative because of the existence of, and necessity for, progressive elaboration.
What is "Management by Projects"?
When "project management" is used to describe an org. or managerial approach to projects or ongoing operations.

Also relates to an adoption of an organizational culture.

Newspapers are an excellent example of this.
What are the five key areas of expertise the must be understood by the PM team to effectively manage a project?
-- PM Body of Knowledge - which includes PMBOK
-- Applicaton Area knowledge, standards, and regulations
-- Understanding the Project Environment
-- General Management Knowledge
-- Interpersonal Skills
What is an Application Area?
Categories of projects that have common elements significant in such projects but are not needed or present in all projects.

Examples include a marketing department, construction engineering elements, management specialization such as government contracting, or industry groups such as automotive.

Each app. area generally has its own set of aceepted standards and practices that are often codified in regulations.
Explain the difference between a Standard and a Regulation
A standard is a document established by concensus and approved by a recognized body for everyone to use as a basis for optimum degree of order.

A Regulation is a government-imposed requirement.
Explain the Cultural and Social, International and Political, and Physical Environments which must be considered by the PM and the Project Team.
Cult. and Soc - How project affects people and visa-versa. Aspects of demographic, educational, ethnic, religious considerations.

Intn'l and Political- Applying laws of the land and customs of the country, region, area. Time zone differences, logistics of teleconferences.

Physical environ. - Local ecology and physical geography.
Define General Management Knowledge and Skills
Planning, organizing, staffing, executing and controlling operations of an ongoing enterprise. Including finanical management, purchasing, org. structures, IT, logistics, etc.
Define Aspects of Interpersonal Skills needed for effective Project Management
-- Effective Communication
-- Influencing the Org. - the ability to "get things done"
-- Leadership
-- Motivation
-- Negotiation and conflict management
-- Problem solving
Define Leadership
Developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy.
Define Motivation
Energizing people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to change.
Define Problem Solving
Problem definition, alternatives identification and analysis and decision making.
What is a Program?
-- A group of related projects managed together to obtain greater benefits and control than with individual management

-- Programs involve a series of repetitive or cyclical undertaking. Like a non-profit fundraising campaign
What is Program Management?
-- Program Management is the coordinated management of a group of projects to achieve the Program's strategic objectives and benefits beyond what could be achieved if they were managed individually.
What is a Portfolio?
A collections of projects or programs and other work grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.
What is Portfolio Management?
-- The management of portfolios to achieve specific goals.

-- Typical managed by senior managers or management teams.
What are Sub-projects?
Parts of a project broken down into more manageable chunks.

-- Often contracted to an external entity or to another funcational unit in the performing org.

-- Based on the project process (like a single phase of project)

-- Separated out by hr skills required (like a plumber)

-- Those that involve specialized technology
What is a Project Management Office (PMO)?
And organizational unit to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under it's domain.

-- Focuses on coordinated planning, prioritization, and execution of projects and sub-projects tied to the overall business objectives of the business or client.

-- Can operate on a continuum; providing everything from project support to actually doing the project.
What are some key features of a Project Management Office (PMO)?
-- ID and development of project management methodology

-- clearinghouse and management for project policies, procedures, templates, and shared documentation.

-- Centralized management of projects
Name some differences between project managers and PMOs
-- PMs focuses on individual project

-- PMOs view is from the Enterprise level - across all projects

-- PMs focus on scope, schedule, cost, and quality of work packages

--PMOs manage overall risk, overall opportunity and the interdependencies among projects
Define Project Life Cycle
-- The PLC defines the phases that connect the beginning of a project to its end.

-- The completion and approval of one or more deliverables characterizes a project phase

-- A project phase is generally concluded with a review of the work accomplished and the deliverables to determine acceptance; whether extra work is still required or whether the phase should be considered closed.

-- A phase cannot be closed without the decision to initiate any other phase. The project is completed or it is determined that it is too risky to allow the project to continue.

-- The phases of the project lifecycle are not the same as the Project Management Process Groups.

-- This division provides for better management control of the project.

-- Formal phase completion does not include authorizing the subsequent phase.

-- After each phase, there should be a "phase end review" or "kill point" or "exit"

-- Starts with Kick-off meeting
Talk about the transition from one phase to another within a project lifecyle.
-- The transition usually involves and is defined by a handoff or technical transfer.

-- Deliverables from one phase are usually reviewed for completeness and accuracy and are approved before work starts on the next phase.

-- Phases are often consecutive, but can begin prior to the approval of a previous phase.
What four characteristics often outline the work of any Project Lifecycle (kinda like the 4 w's)
-- Technical work to do in each phase

-- When deliverales are generated and how they are reviewed, verified, and validated

--Who is involved in each phase

-- How to control and approve each phase
Describe the typical behavior of cost and staffing levels in a project lifecycle
Cost and staffing are often lowest at the start, progress to a max in the intermediate phase, then rapidly decline to their lowest as you reach the project end.
Describe the nature of Uncertainty/Risk of Failing in a Project Lifecycle
Uncertainty and risk of failing are highest at the outset of the project because that is when you know the least about the project/product.

-- It gets progressively better as the project continues.
Describe the nature of a Stakeholder's influence in a Project Lifecycle
The ability for a stakeholder to influence a project's product AND process decreases as the project continues.
Describe the nature of the Cost of Change in a Project Lifecycle
Cost of change is lowest at the beginning and increases as a project progresses.
Define Deliverable
A measurable, verifiable, work product such as a specification.
What is a Phase End Review?
-- A review of the current phase to determine whether phase goals have been met and authorization has been received

-- Place to decide to move to another phase

-- Also called "kill point", "exit", "phase gate"
Define Project Stakeholders and tell why they are important
Anyone/thing actively involved in the project or whose interests may be affected as a result of the project's objectives and outcomes.

-- The PM Team MUST ID the stakeholders and determine their requirements and expectations

-- to the extent possible, PMs and team MUST manage stakeholder influence in relation to the requirements to ensure a successful project.

-- Stakeholders who ignore their responsibility to contribute to the success of the project can have a damaging impact on the project objectives.

-- PMs who ignore their stakeholders can expect a damaging impact on the project outcome.

-- There are positive and negative stakeholders. Negative stakeholders (like a community that doesn't want the project's business in their neighborhood) are often ovlooked to the detriment of the project.

-- Stakeholder's roles and responsibilities can overlap.

-- Stakeholders often have different and/or conflicting objectives and MUST be well managed by the PM.
Name Some Key Stakeholders in any project
-- PM

--Customer/User

-- Performing organization

-- Project Team members

-- Project management team

-- Sponsors

-- Influencers

-- PMO
Define Customer/User.
The person or organization that will use the product
What are the two types of Project-Based Organizational Systems
1. Derive revenue primarily from perform projects for others under contract (consultants)

2. Adopted management by projects (newspapers)
What is a Phase End Review?
A review of the current phase to determine whether phase goals have been met and authorization has been received.

-- Place to decide to move to another phase.

-- Also called "kill point", "exit", "phase gate"
Define Project Stakeholders and tell why they are important
Anyone/thing ctively involved in the project or whose intersts may be affected as a result of the project's objectives and outcomes.

-- The PM Team MUST ID the stakeholders and determine their requirements and expectations

-- to the extent possible, PMs and team MUST manage stakeholder influence in relation to the requirements to ensure a successful project.

-- STakeholders who ignore their responsibility to contribute etot he success of the proejct can have a damaging impact on the prjoect objectives.

-- PMs who ignore their stakeholders can expect a damaging impact on the project outcome.

-- There are positive and negative stakeholders. Negiative stakeholders (like a ocmmunity that doesn't want the project's business in their neighborhood) are often overlooked to the detriment of the project.
-- Stakeholder's roles and responsibilities can overlap.

-- Stakeholders often have different and/or conflicting objectives and MUST be well managed by the PM.
Name Some Key Stakeholders in any project
-- PM

--Customer/User

-- Performing organization

-- Project team members

-- Project management team

-- Sponsors

-- Influencers

--PMO
Define Customer/User
The person or organization that will use the product
What are the two types of Project-Based Organizational Systems
1. Derive revenue primarily from performing projects for others under contract (consultants)

2. Adopted management by projects (newspapers)
What is a Project Management System?
The set of tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures used to manage a project.

-- Can be formal or informal

-- Aids a PM in effectively guideing a project to completion.

-- A set of processes and the related control functions that are combined into a whole.
What is the purpose of the Project Management Plan?
It describes how the pm system will be used.
How is Project Mangement accomplished?
Through processes, using tools and techniques that receive inputs and generate outputs.
What four elements are required for a project to be successful?
-- Appropriate selection of processes within the Process groups required to meet the project objectives

-- use of a defined approach in adapting the product specs and plans to meet project and product requirements.

-- Compliance with requirements to meet stakeholder needs, wants and expectations.

-- Balance competing demands of scope, time, cost, quality, resources, and risk to produce a quality product.
What's the definition of "Good Practice"?
There is general agreement that the application of the generally accepted processes have been shown to enhance the chances of success over a wide range of projects.
Who on the project team is responsible for determining what processes are appropriate and to what degree those processes should be implemented for any particular project?
The Project Manager
What is a Process?
A set of inter-related actions and activities that are performed to achieve a pre-specified set of products, results, or services

-- Performed by the project team

-- two types: project management processes (initiating, planning, etc.) and product-oriented processes that specify and create the project's products
Name the PM Process Groups
-- Initiating
-- Planning
-- Executing
-- Montoring and Controlling
-- Closing

-- They each have clear dependencies and are performed in the same sequence on each project.
What is the underlying concept for the interaction among the PM Processes?
-- Plan-Do-Check-Act

-- Defined by Shewhart

-- Modified by Deming in ASQ

-- This cycle is linked by results - the result from one part of the cycle becomes the input to another

-- Think of a square where each element leads into the next

--Not integrative in nature
Discuss the Initiating Process Group
-- Facilitates formal authorization for the start of a new project or phase

-- Outputs of Initiating Process IDs objectives, define the project's purpose, and authorize PM to start

-- Done external to the project's scope

-- Initiated by the org. or by program or portfolio processes

-- assigns project manager

-- refines initial scope description (from contract or statement of work) and resources that will be alloted to the project

-- Approved and funded external to the project boundaries from executive level

-- In multi-phase projects, initiating processes are carried out during subsequent phases to validate the assumptions and decisions made during the original Develop Project Charter and Dev. Prelim Project Scope Statement processes
What is the benefit of utilizing the Initiating Process Group in complex projects with phases?
-- Allows for review of initiating process at the beginning of each phase to validate the assumptions and decisions made during the original Develop Project Charter and Dev. Prelim. Project Scope Statement processes.

-- Can verify the entry criteria at the beginning of each phase

-- Allows for project review to determine if it should be delayed or discontinued (good kill point)
Discuss the Planning Process Group
-- These processes ID, define, and mature the project scope and cost

-- schedule the activities that occur in the project

-- ID and resolve additional dependencies, requirements, risks, opportunities, assumptions, and constraints
What is Rolling Wave Planning?
-- Progressive detailing of the pm plan

-- When updates are limited to activities and issues associated with the execution of a specific phase
What is the primary source of information for how the project will be executed, monitored and controlled and closed?
Project Management Plan
What process defines how the work breakdown structure will be created and defined? What specific output?
Scope Planning; Scope Management Plan
What is the process necesssary for subdividing the major project deliverablese and project work into smaller, more manageble components?
Creat WBS/Decomposition
What is the process necessary for IDing the specific activities that need to be performed to produce the various project deliverables?
Activity Definition
The milestone list is an output of what process?
Activity Definition
The Scope Baseline is an output of what process?
Create Work Breakdown Structure
Which process identifies and documents dependencies among schedule activities?
Activity Sequencing
The Project Schedule Network Diagram is an output of what process?
Activity Sequencing
The Resource breakdown structure is the only new output of what process?
Activity Resource Estimating
Name and describe two project selection methods
-- Benefits Measurement Model: Takes features and benefits and determines how much each project will benefit the organization. Often done in meetings usings "murder boards"

--Mathematical Model: Also called "Constrained Optimization" these models are less common and involve complex math formulas that attempt to predict project success. When you see "programming" its a good indication that you're dealing with a mathementical model.
What's a Murder Board?
Another term for benefits measurement method for project selection.
What is a "Cooperative Approach" to project selection?
The same as benefits measurement method for project selection.
Name some elements of a Project Charter
-- Summary (indicating authority to do the project)

--Project Requirements

--Summary Milestones

--External Assumptions and Constraints

-- Business Case: Why this project is more important/necessary than others.
What is the Work Authorization System?
-- It determine how your company assigns work to people and ensures that tasks are done properly and in the right order

-- A subsystem of the overall PM system

-- A collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized

-- Includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to assure work authorization

-- it is part of your company's EEF
Purpose of a Contract?
An input to the Dev. Project Charter Process that says what you agree to do.
Purpose of Statement of Work?
An input to the Dev. Project Charter Process that lists what deliverables you and your team need to produce.
What is the purpose of an "Open Issues" section in a Project Plan?
-- To document and track open issues and concerns and to document how you dealt with them.

-- You should NEVER have a project requirements in your Open issues section. Requirements need to be finalized before work starts.
Is a Project Management Plan Formal or Informal?
Formal. It must be written and distributed to your team.
When the exam asks what to do when you encounter change, how should you typically answer?
You always begin dealing with change by consulting your pm plan.
What is Work Performance Information?
-- Created by measuring how well the processes from each knowlege area are being performed.

-- A main output of Direct and Manage Project Process
What are the three components of the Direct and Manage Process
1. Use the plan to create deliverables
2. Repair defects in Deliverables
3. Make approved changes and corrections to deliverables.
Define Deliverables
Anything that your project delivers, including all products and services, and all documents, plans, schedule, budget, etc.
What is a Change Control Board?
Also called a CCB, this board is a group of peoples - usually including a sponsor - that approves or rejects changes.
What is Earned Value Measurement
A way of measuring how well your project is performing.
Define "Defect"?
A problem with the product or service you're creating.
What are "corrective actions"?
They are changes/actions that you do to bring your team's work back in line with the original plan. Does not have to do with what you are producing, but the processes.
Define Change Control System
A set of procedures that let you make changes to a project in an organized way.
Define Preventive Actions
Steps to avoid potential problems.
What are Lessons Learned?
-- Organizational process assets
-- Artifacts to be written down throughout the project.
-- Collected by the whole team.
What Human Resources management skills do you need to ensure that you have a successful project?
-- Plan carefully

-- Set up a good work environment

-- Negotiate for the best people

-- Keep the team motivated

-- Deal with conflict
What are the outputs of the Human Resource Planning process?
-- Organizational charts
-- Roles and Responsiblities (RAM/RACI)
-- Staffing Management Plan
What is a RACI Matrix?
It stands for Responsibility, Accountability, Counsult, and Inform.

It is a table that lists the role and responsiblity of individuals or groups.

Shows who's responsible for what and to whom.
What is the Staffing Management Plan?
-- An output of HR Planning
-- Tells you everything you need to know to build your team, keep them motivated, and managed conflicts.
What info is included in a Staffing Management Plan?
Resource Histogram
-- Training Needs
-- Recognition and Rewards
-- Release Criteria
What is a Resource Histogram?
A table that tells you the type and number of resources you need at anytime.
What are Release Criteria and why are they important?
Release criteria are the plans for exactly how team members will roll off of your project so functional managers/other pms can know they're available for other projects.

-- a method of timing and releasing team members

-- They also reduce costs(because team members can be quickly reassigned)

-- boost morale when smooth transition to upcoming projects are planned.
What is the Halo Effect?
When you've got a team member who does a very good job, but perhaps not the skills required to do a different job.
What are the outputs of Acquire Project Team?
-- Resource Availability
-- Staffing Assignments
-- Updates to the Staffing Management Plan
What are the outputs of Develop Project Team?
Team Performance Assessments including:

-- Competencies/Skills Improvements
-- Team Performance
-- Turnover Rates
What is the most important tool in the Acquire Project Team process?
Negotiation
What are the tools of Acquire Project Team?
-- Pre-Assignment
-- Negotiation
-- Virtual Teams
-- Acquisition
There are 4
What are the tools of Develop Project Team?
-- Recognition and Reward
-- Training
-- Ground Rules
-- Co-location
-- Team-Building Activities
What are the five kinds of power?
-- Legitimate
-- Reward
-- Expert
-- Referent
-- Punishment
Define Reward Power
Awarding a bonus or other kind of reward in order to motivate team members.

--Award must be FAIR and work best when they're tied to specific goals or project priorities.

-- Good: Turning in good status updates

-- Bad: Employee of the Month
Define Expert Power
Power that comes from having expertise in a specific area. Therfore the team enlists their power to you.
Define Referent Power
Power that is attained because you stand in for someone who has more power in the company.
Define Punishment Power
-- Another motivational soft skill

-- Used in Manage and Develop Project Team

-- Used to correct a team member for poor behavior

-- Should be done one-on-one and in private
Define Legitimate Power
When you assign work to someone who reports to you.
Who developed the five categories of power that influences people.
French and Raven. Psychologists.
What is the most important tool of Develop Project Team?
Leadership Skills
What are Ground Rules?
A set of standards for how everyone will work together. Once the group rules are set, the project team is responsible for enforcing them.
Explain Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and why it's important
-- one motivational method for your project.

-- part of dev. project team because they are "soft skills"

-- people have needs and until the lower needs are satisfied, people won't begin to think about the higher ones.

-- Base needs are physiological (food, warmth)

--Security - safety and job security

-- Acceptance on the team

-- Then esteem and self-acutalization
Explain Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
-- one motivational method for your project.

-- part of dev. project team because they are "soft skills"

-- You need basic needs or "hygiene factors" to be met before you care about "motivational factors".

-- You need to get a paycheck, have a place to work, etc.
Explain McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
-- one motivational method for your project.

-- part of dev. project team because they are "soft skills"

-- Theory X managers assumes everyone on the team is selfish and unmotivated. They micro-manage.

-- Theory Y managers are good at delegating, trusting that their team will do a great job.
Define Expectancy Theory
-- one motivational method for your project.

-- part of dev. project team because they are "soft skills"

-- Theory that you need to give people an expectation of a reward in order to motivate them.

-- This only works if the actual award is believable.
Define McLellan's Achievement Theory
-- one motivational method for your project.

-- part of dev. project team because they are "soft skills"

-- people need achievement, power and affiliation to be motivated.
Name a few reasons why Conflicts occur
Over half are caused by
-- Resources
-- Priorities
-- Schedule

Other causes are
-- personalities
-- cost (especially contracts)
-- technical opinions
Name five Conflict Management Types
-- Confronting
-- Compromise
-- Smoothing
-- Forcing
-- Withdrawl
Describe the Confronting Conflict Management Type
Face conflict head on and work with everyone to find a solution.

-- Do your research first and gather all the info you need to make an informed decision.

-- Resolve the root cause.
Describe the Compromising Conflict Management Type
Each person gives up something.

-- Not always good beause it sends up being a "lose-lose" solution.

-- You should always aim for a "win-win" solution.
Describe the Smoothing Conflict Management Type
Try to play down the problem and make it seem like it's not so bad.

-- Good when trying to keep tempers from flairing and give people time/space to cool off
Describe the "Forcing" Conflict Management Type
Putting your foot down and making a decision.
Describe the Withdrawl Conflict Management Type
When one person gets so frustrated, angry, or disgusted that they just walk away.

-- Almost always counterproductive.
Define Project Team
People who have assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project
Define Project Management Team
A subset of the project team responsible for project management activities
Should team members be involved in the project planning and decision-making?
Yes, because early involvement of team members adds expertise during the planning process and strengthens commitment to the project.

-- When you have low authority, these actions help you build power.
What's the purpose of Human Resources Planiing?
-- Tell how and when team members will be acquired
-- Set criteria for rlease from project
-- ID training needs
--Plans for recognition and rewards
--Compliance considerations
-- Impact of the staffing management plan on the org.
-- Safety issue
What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
-- Illustrates the connections between work that needs to be done and project team members

-- Allows a person to see all activities associated with one person or to see all people associated with one activity

-- Can be developed at various levels of detail
What planning process increases in importance when yoru team is in a virtual team environment?
Communications
Why is Develop Project Team important?
Because you are starting from nothing and you want to create the bonds necessary to run an effective project.
When is it best to develop your project team?
-- Has the greatest benefit when conducted early, but should be done throughout the project lifecycle because team is always changing and could lose motivation

--This is true for quality, risk, and communication
What is the purpose of the Management Project Team?
-- It tracks team member performance, provides feedback, resolves issues, and coordinatese changes to enhance project performance

-- Can be a series of people like Quality Director and PM or just the PM
When is managing the project team most complicated?
When team members are accountable to both functional and project managers in a matrix org.

-- Effective management of this dual reporting relationship is often a critical success factor...

-- and is generally the responsiblity of the PM
What do Project Management Processes Do?
describe, organize and complete the work of the project
What are the characteristics of Product-oriented Processes?
-- Specify and create the project's product

-- Vary by Application Area

--Typically defined by project life cycle
What do Core processes do?
--Have clear depenedencies that require them to be performed in essentially the same order.
Define Facilitating Processes
Processes performed intermittently, as needed

Include:
-- Communications
-- Risk
-- Human Resources
-- Quality
-- Procurement
What is the formula for lines of communication?
# lines =n(n-1)/2
What is the formula for Earned Value (EV)?
EV=% actual work completed * BAC
What is the formula for Planned Value (PV)
PV=% planned work completed * BAC
What is Budget at Completion (BAC)
It is the baseline budget for the project
What is the Actual Cost (AC)
It is the actual amount spent thus far in the project.
What is the formula for Schedule Performance Index(SPI)?
SPI=EV/PV

Lower, loser

One is even, below is behind schedule.
What is the formula for Schedule Variance (SV)?
SV=EV-PV

Lower, loser
What is the formula for Cost Performance Index (CPI)?
CPI=EV/AC

Lower, loser

One is even, below is over budget.
What is the formula for Cost Variance (CV)?
CV=EV-AC

Lower, loser
What is Estimate at Completion (EAC)? What is the formula for EAC?
EAC is the formula used to predict what your project will actually cost when it's completed based on your current expenditures.

It is an Earned Value Technique Tool

EAC=BAC/CPI
What is the formula for Variance At Completion (VAC)?
VAC predicts what your variance will be whent he project is done based on your current status.

VAC=BAC-EAC
What is the formula used to complete a three-point estimate?
late + (4*realistic)+ early/6
What is the formula for Decision Tree Analysis?
Net out the possible outcomes for each option and compare the values between options. (p 325 study guide)
What is the formula for calcuating early start and early finish?
ES for first in line is 1.
EF for first in line is 1 + duration -1.

ES for remaining tasks = EF of previous task + 1.

EF for remaining tasks = ES of current task + duration of current task -1
How do you calculate Critical Path?
Draw out each path in the project. For each path, add the duration of each task. The path with the longest path is the Critical Path.
How do you calculate the Float for any activity?
First, use the Network Diagram to calculate the total of each path. The largest total is the Critical Path and has a Float of ZERO.

Find the next largest path. Subtract this number from the critical path. Each activity on this path has the resulting number as float.

You MUST calculate it this way because, once an activity has a float, it cannot have another one.
How do you calculate Late Start and Late Finish (Backward Pass)?
Start at the end of the Network Diagram.

Late Finish for first (last) activity=Early Finish of that activity.

Late Finish of remaining = LS of previous activity - 1.

Late Start=LF-duration of current task+1.
Name the Inputs to the Develop Project Charter Process
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors
-- Organizational Process Assets
-- Statement of Work
-- Contract (if available)
There are 4
Name the Tools & Techniques used in the Develop Project Charter Process
-- PM IS System
-- PM Selection Methods
-- Expert Judgement
-- PM Methodology
There are 4
Name the Outputs of the Develop Project Charter Process
Project Charter
There is 1
Name the Inputs to the Develop Preliminary Scope Statement
-- Organizational Process Assets
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors
-- Project Charter (from Dev. Project Charter)
-- Project Statement of Work
There are 4
Name the Tools & Techniques used in the Develop Preliminary Scope Process
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Expert Judgement
There are 3
Name the Outputs of the Develop Preliminary Scope Statement
Preliminary Project Scope
There is only 1
Name the Inputs to the Direct and Manage Project Execution Process
-- Project Management Plan (from Dev. Project Management Plan)
-- Approved Corrective Actions(from M & C)
-- Approved Preventive Actions (from M & C)
-- Approved Change Requests (from M & C)
-- Approved Defect Repairs (from M & C)
-- Validated Defect Repairs (from M & C)
-- Administrative Closure Procedures (from Close Project)
There are 7
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Direct and Manage Project Execution
-- PM Methodology
-- PM IS
There are 2
Name the Outputs from the Direct and Manage Project Execution Process
-- Deliverables
-- Requested Changes
-- Implemented Change Requests
-- Implemented Preventive Actions
-- Implemented Corrective Actions
-- Implemented Defect Repairs
-- WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION
There are 7
Name the Inputs to the Monitor and Control Project Work
-- Work Performance Information (from Direct and Manage Project Execution)
-- Project Management Plan (from Dev. PM Plan)
-- Rejected Change Requests
There are 3
Name the Tools & Techniques used in the Monitor and Control Work Process
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Earned Value Technique
-- Expert Judgement
There are 4
Name the Outputs of the Monitor and Control Work Process
-- Recommended Corrective Actions
-- Recommended Preventive Actions
-- Recommended Defect Repair
-- Forecasts
-- Requested Changes
There are 5
Name the Outputs of the Integrated Change Control Process
-- Approved Change Requests
-- Rejected Change Requests
-- Project Management Plan Updates
-- Project Scope Statement Updates
-- Approved Corrective Actions
-- Approved Preventive Actions
-- Approved Defect Repairs
-- Validated Defect Repairs
-- Deliverables
There are 0
Name the Inputs to the Integrated Change Control Process
-- PM Plan (from Dev. PM Plan)
-- Requested Changes (from Monitor and Control Work and other monitoring processes)
-- Work Performance Information (from Direct and Manage Project Work)
-- Recommended preventive actions (from Monitor and Control processes)
-- Recommended corrective actions (from Monitor and Control processes)
-- Recommended defect repairs (from Monitory and Control processes)
-- Deliverables (from Direct and Manage Project Execution)
There are 7
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Integrated Change Control
-- PM methodology
-- PM IS
-- Expert Judgement
There are 3
Name the Outputs of the Close Project Process
-- Historical Information
-- Project Closure Documents
-- Project Files
-- Formal Acceptance Documents
There are 4. They are all TYPES of Organizational Process Assets.
Name the Inputs to the Close Project Process
-- PM Plan (from Dev. PM Plan)
-- Work Performance Information (from Direct and Manage Work)
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors
-- Organizational Process Assets
There are 4
Name the Tools & Techniques used in the Close Project Process
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Expert Judgement
There are 3
Six of the seven Integration Management Processes has three common Tools & Techniques. What are they?

Name the six processes
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Expert Judgement

Processes
-- Dev. Project Charter
-- Dev. Prelim. Scope Statement
-- Dev. PM Plan
-- Monitor and Contol Work
-- Integrated Change Control
-- Close Project
You don't use and judgement in Direct and Manage Projecet Execution.
There are four Integration Management Processes that share two common Inputs. What are the inputs? What are the Prrocesses?
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors
-- Organiational Process Assets

Processes
-- Dev. Project Charter
-- Dev. Prelim. Scope Statement
-- Dev. PM Plan
-- Close Project
The three in the Execute and Monitor and Control do not have these.
Which Intergration Management Process has Earned Value Technique as a Tool & Technique
-- Monitor & Control Project Work
You need to calculate these numbers to then make them an input in another process and evaluate them.
What are the processes in the Human Resource Knowledge Areas
-- Human Resource Planning
-- Acquire Team
-- Develop Team
-- Manage Team
There are 4
Name the Outputs of the Human Resource Planning Process
-- Staffing Resource Plan
-- Roles and Responsibilities
-- Project Organization Charts
There are 3
Name the Inputs to the Human Resource Planning Process
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors
-- Organizational Process Assets
-- PM Plan: Activity Resource Requirements (from Activity Resource Estimating)
There are 3
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Human Resource Planning
-- Corp. Organization Charts and Position Descriptions
-- Networking
-- Organizational Theory
There are 3
Name the Outputs of Acquire Project Team
-- Project Staffing Assignments
-- Resource Availability
-- Staffing Management Plan (updates) (from HR Planning)
There are 3 (one is an update)
Name the Inputs to Acquire Project Team
-- Enterprise Environmental Factores
-- Organizational Process Assets
-- Staffing Management Plan
-- Roles a nd Responsibilities
-- Project Organization Charts
There are 5
Name the Tools & Techniques of Acquire Project Team
-- Pre-Assigned
-- Negotiating
-- Virtual Teams
-- Acquisition
There are 4
Name the Inputs to the Develop Project Team Process
-- Staffing Management Plan
-- Resouce Availability
-- Project Staffing Assignments
They are all outputs of the previous process (and only those). There are 3.
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Develop Project Team Process
-- General Management Skills
-- Training
-- Team-Building Activities
-- Ground Rules
-- Co-location
-- Recognition and Rewards
There are 6. They all center around building team cohesiveness, individual skills, and motivating
Name the Outputs of the Develop Project Team Process
-- Team Performance Assessment
-- Only one. It's a type of measurement.
Name the Inputs to Communications Planning
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors

-- Organizational Process Assets

-- Project Scope Statement
-- PM Pan
-- Contraints
-- Assumptions
There are 4
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Communications Planning
-- Communications Requirements Analysis

-- Communications Technolgoy
There are 2
Name the Outputs to Communications Planning
Communications Management Plan
There is only 1
Name the Inputs to the Information Distribution Process
-- Communications Management Plan
There is only 1
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Information Distribution
-- Communications Skills

-- Information gathering and retrieval systems

-- Information distribution Methods

-- Lessons Learned Process
There are 4. This is about letting stakeholders know what's going on in a timely manner.
Name the Outputs from the Information Distribution Process
-- Organizational Process Assets

-- Requested Changes
There are 2
Name the Inputs to Performance Reporting
-- Work Performance Information (from Direct and Manage Project Execution)

-- Performance Measurements (from Schedule Control)

-- Forecasted Completion (from Cost Control)

-- Quality Control Measurements (from Quality Control)

-- Project Management Plan
-- Performance Measurement Baselines

-- Approved change requests (from Integrated Change Control)

-- Deliverables (from Integrated Change Control)
There are 7.
Name the Tools & Techniques used in Performance Reporting
-- Information Presentation Tools

-- Performance Information Gathering and Compilation

-- Statuts Review Meetings

-- Time Reporting Systems

-- Cost Reporting Systems
There are 5. This is about collecting BASELINE data and distributing performance info to stakeholder.
Name the Outputs from the Performance Reporting Process
-- Performance Reports

-- Forecasts

-- REquested Changes

-- Recommended Corrective Actions

-- Organizational Process Assets (updates)
There are 5.
What is the purpose of the Information Distribution Process?
To make needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
What is the purpose of the Performance Reporting Process?
To collect and distribute performance information.
What is the purpose of the Manage Stakeholders Process?
Manage communications to satisfy the requirements of and resolve issues with project stakeholders.
Define Acknowledgement as it relates to the Communications Knowledge Area?
It means that the receiver signals receipt of the message. It does NOT mean that the receiver is in agreement with the message.
Define Response as it relates to the Communications Knowledge Area
The receive has decoded, understands, and is replying to the message.
What is the purpose of the Communications Planning Process?
To determine the information and communications needs of the stakeholders. Who, what, when, how, by whom.

-- Majority of Comm Planning on most projects is done as a part of the earliest project plans but should be updated as things progress.

-- Tightly linked to Enterprise Environmental Factors, and org. influences, so these will have a major impact on how project comm. are structured.
Define Constraints
FActors that can limit the project management team's options.
Define Assumptions
Things we agree to be true although they may not be specifically stated or verified.
The sum of the information needs of the project stakeholders is the result of what planning tool/technique?
Communications Requirement Analysis

-- The type and format of information needed is combined with an analysis of the value of that information.

-- Project resources are only spent on communicating info that contributes to success, or where lack of communications can lead to failure.

-- It is an attempt to prevent overwhelming stakeholders with minutiae.
What is the formula for total number of communication channels?
n(n-1)/2
Define Communciation Technology
It is the methodology used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Name some Communication Technology factors that can affect a project
-- Urgency of need for info.

-- Availability of Certain Technology. Can we use systems already in place?

-- Expected Project Staffing - who's where and what is their experience? language?

-- Length of Project. Will technology change over project timeframe

-- Project Environment. Face-to-face? Virtual?
Where would you look to find what methods of technology yoru project team will use to communicate information?
Comm. Management Plan.

These may be things like Memoranda, email, press releases.
Where would you look to determien the escalation process for a project issue?
fCommunications Management Plan.

The Escalation Processes ID the timeframes and the management chain for escalation of an issue that can't be resolved by lover staff.
Where would you find guidelines for conducting status meetings?
In the Comm. Management Plan.
Are Communication Management Plans formal or informal documents
Either, depending on Project.
Communications Planning often entails creation of additional deliverables that, in turn, require additional time and effort. Therefore, what other project artifacts may also require updating?
-- WBS
-- Schedule
-- Project Budget
Approximately how much of a project manager's job is communication?
90%
Define Medium as it relates to Communications
The thing that is used to transfer the sender's message.
Define Feedback as it relates to Communications
The response to the sender's message by the receiver.
Which Communications process is used to turn all the work performance information to reports that your stakeholders will use to keep informed?
Performance Reporting Process
What is the term used for figuring out what kind of communications yur stakeholders need from the project so that they can make good decisions?
Communications Requirements Analysis (A tool in Communication Management Planning)
What are the four kinds of commuciations?
-- Formal written

-- Informal written

-- Formal Verbal

-- Informal Verbal
Name some examples of Formal Verbal Communications?
-- Presentations

-- Speaking engagements
Name some examples of Informal Verbal Communications?
-- Meetings

-- Hallway talks

-- phone calls
Name some examples of Formal Written Communications?
-- Contracts

-- Blueprints

-- Specs

-- all other project documents
Name some examples of Informal Written Communications?
-- Emails

-- Sticky Note
When communicating with a client or sponsor, what communication type should you use?
Formal Written or Verbal
What type of communication type are you using when conducting a meeting?
Informal Verbal
What type of communication tupe are you using when you are creating or updating a project document?
Formal Written
Name and discuss three Communication Skills/techniques used in the Information Distribution Process
-- Nonverbal Communications: Gestures, facial expressions and physical appearance while you are communicating your message

-- Paralingual Communication: The tone and pitch of your voice

-- Feedback: When and how you respond to communication. Nodding, "yes", mirroring.
Define Active Listening
When you give someone who is speaking a lot of feedback. Nodding, "yes", mirroring.
What is the Formula for Estimate to Completion (ETC)?
EAC-AC

EAC=BAC/CPI
What are areas of influence addressed by Project Communication Management?
Timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disponsition of project information.
What provides the critical links among people and information that are necessary for successful communications?
Project Communications Management
Peformance Reporting Is Done Across all Three Aspects of your project. Which aspects are those?
-- Cost
-- Scope
-- Schedule
All Baseline data is collected in what process?
Performance Reporting
All performance information is distributed to stakeholders in what process?
Performance Reporting - This is creation of report.

Data collection is done in Direct and Manage Project Work
Creating and Distributing Reports is associated with what process?
Performance Reporting
Collecting Data is associated with what process?
Direct and Manage Project Execution
This practice increases the likelihood that the project will not beer off track due to unresolved stakeholder issues, enhances the abiloity of persons to operate synergistically, aned limites disruption
Active Stakeholder Management
Who is responsible for stakeholder management?
The Project Manager
What are the processes in the Risk Management Knowledge Area?
-- Risk Management Planning

-- Risk INdentification

-- Qualitative Risk Analysis

-- Qualtitative Risk Analysis

-- Risk Reponse Planning

-- Risk Monitoring and Control
Name the Outputs from the Plan Purchases and Acquisitions Process
-- Make or Buy Decisions
-- Procurement Management Plan
-- Contract Statement of Work
-- Requested Changes
There are 4.
Name the Inputs to the Contract Planning Process
-- Procurement Management Plan
-- Contract Statement of Work
-- Make or Buy Decisions
-- Project Management Plan
-- Risk register
-- Risk related contractual agreements
-- Resource requirements
-- Project schedule
-- Activity cost estimates
-- Cost baseline
There are 4.
Name the Tools and Techniques used in the Contract Planning Process
-- Standard Forms
-- Expert Judgement
There are 2.
Name the Outputs from the Contract Planning Process
-- Contract Statement of Work (updates)
-- Procurement Documents
-- Evaluation Criteria
There are 3.
Name the Inputs to the Request Seller Response Process
-- Procurement Management Plan
-- Procurement Documents
-- Organizational Process Assets
There are 3.
Name the Tools and Techniques used in Request Seller Response
-- Bidders conference
-- Advertising
-- Develop qualified sellers list
There are 3
Name the Outputs from Request Seller Response
-- Qualified Seller list
-- Proposals
-- Procurement Dcoument Packages
There are 3.
Name the Inputs to the Select Seller Process
-- Organizational Process Assets
-- Proposals
-- Procurement Document Packages
-- Procurement Management Plan
-- Evaluation Criteria
-- Qualified Seller List
-- PM Plan
-- Risk register
-- Risk-related contractual agreements
There are 7
Name the Tools and Techniques used in Select Sellers
-- Weighting System
-- Independent Estimates
-- Screening System
-- Contract Negotiation
-- Seller Rating System
-- Expert Judgement
-- Proposal Evaluation Techniques
There are 7.
Name the Outputs from Select Sellers
-- Selected Sellers
-- Contract
-- Contract Management Plan
-- Resource Availability
-- Procurement Management Plan (Updates)
-- Requested Changes
There are 6.
What percentage of projects typically fail and why?
70 percent. Primarily because project fails to deliver intended product; doesn't define product well enough; over budget; over schedule.
Where is Stakeholder Analysis Used?
Stakeholder Analysis is a Tool of Scope Definition.
What are some characteristics of constraints?
They re the predecessors to everything. When you start a project, you start with a blank slate save for certain high-level constratints and you must make up the plan as you go.
When does Progressive Elaboration End?
Although all the PM processes are iterative, one could say that progressive elaboration ends in the planning phase of the phase or project, once you've moved to execution.
What is the main difference between Cost Estimating and Cost Budgeting?
Cost Budgeting provides a cost baseline that is a "Time Phased Budget" as opposed to Cost Estimating where you simply have cost estimates laid out for each activity.
What is a Project Road Map?
The basic map of how to get from nothing to delivering the desired product for the project.

Initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing processes.

More succinctly, kick-off meeting, stakeholder anasis, scope statement, estmates, procurement, resources, schedule, prototype, programming, UAT, producton training, implementation, deployment, testing, support, trouble shooting. ly
What is the real risk to the project success?
-- the PM fails to deliver the product on time

-- Project management is about Getting Organized!
How is the Project Charter Developed?
-- Exteernal to the project/organization/project manager.

-- PM doesn't have authority to make decisions about charter/prelim. scope statement. These are upper-level decisions.
How is a phase initiated?
-- Through a "go" decision
Name the characteristics of a Phase End Review.
-- Asks "are we done?"
-- Asks should this project continue?
-- Detects and corrects errors cost-effectively
-- Each marked b y one or more deliverables
-- Record lessons learned and "historical data"

--Each phase should looke like this: kick-off, execution, questions, deliverable.
Name the Inputs to the Direct and Manage Project Work Process
-- PM Plan
-- Corrective Actions - approved
-- Preventive actions - approved
-- Defect Repairs - validated
-- Change Requests - approved
-- Defect Repairs - approved
-- Administrative Closure Procedures
The plan plus five
Name the Tools and Techniques used in Direct and Manage Project Work
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
There are two
Name the Outputs of Direct and Manage Project Work process
-- Work Performance Information
-- Deliverables
-- Implemented Defect Repairs
-- Implemented Corrective Actions
-- Implemented Preventive Actions
-- Requested Changes
-- Implemented Change Requests
There are Seven
Name the Inputs to the Monitor and Control Project Work Process
-- PM Plan
-- Work Performance Information
-- Rejected Change Requests
There are three.
Name the Tools and Techniques used in the Monitor and Control Project Work Process
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Earned Value Technique
-- Expert Judgement
There are four.
Name the Outputs of the Monitor and Control Project Work Process
-- Change Requests
-- Corrective actions - recommended
-- Preventive actions - recommended
-- FORECASTS
-- Defect Repairs - Recommended
There are 5. One is HUGE.
Name the Inputs to Integrated Change Control Process
-- PM Plan
-- Work Performance Information
-- Deliverables
-- Change Requests - recommended
-- Corrective Actions - recommended
-- Defect repairs - recommended
-- preventive actions - recommended
There are seven.
Name the Outputs from the Integrated Change Control Process
-- PM Plan Updates
-- PM Scope Updates
-- Change Requests - approved
-- Corrective actions - Approved
-- Preventive actions - approved
-- Change requests - Rejected
-- Defect Repairs - Approved
-- Defect Repairs - Validated
-- Deliverables
There are 8.
Name the Tools and Techniques used in the Integrated Change Control Process
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Expert Judgement
They are really basic and only three.
Name the Outputs from the Close Project Procedure
-- Administrative Closure Procedure
-- Contract Closure Procedure
-- Final Product, service or result
-- Organizational Process Assets (updates/historical Information)
There are Four.
Name the Inputs to the Project Closure Procedures
-- Enterprise Environmental Factors
-- Organizational Process Assets
-- PM Plan
-- Work Performance Information
-- Deliverables
-- PM Plan
--
There are 6. They are all you need to compare and close.
Name the tools and Techniques used in the Project Closure Procedure
-- PM IS
-- PM Methodology
-- Expert Judgement
There are 3.

What is the worst thing that can happen from a PMI standpoint on a project?
That you don't meet your commitment (completion by the specified date).

Reasons:

-- Your commitment needs to be realistic, and achievable in recognition of the risk that should be included in your baseline.
What is a Management Reserve?
it is the amount of unknown unknowns. A budget set aside for things you couldn't predict. It is not included in your baseline budget.
What is a Contingency Reserve?
it is a grouped budget to fund known unknowns or identified risks for your project and its included in your baseline budget.
What are Risk Contingency Reserves?
Same as known unknowns or contingency reserves. Risks you've attempted to id and monitor for in budget.
What is the formula for PERT or three-point estimate?
optimistic + (4 * realistic) + pessemistic/6.
How do you conduct a decision tree analysis
Good question. STudy it.
Define Present Value vs. Oppurtnity Cost
okay
What do you know?
I nkow what I don't know and I know what I need to do to fnid out what I need to know to be successful.

The PMI model is one of planning before execution.
WEhat is Net present Value
Look it up
What is Discounted Cash Flow
Look it up
What is the Internal Rate of Return?
Look it up.
What for Values are Most Important in the PMI
Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct?
-- Respect
-- Responsibility
-- Honesty
-- Fairness
Compare Aspirational conduct to mandatory coduct in professional ethics
Aspirational conduct is what we all, as individuals should look to do; They are not optional

-- manadatory are firm requirements that limit or prohibit practitioner behavior. They are subject to disciplinary action by PMI.
Define Responsibility as the PMI Code of Coduct Would
Our dutuy to take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to and the consequences from their results.
Define Respect as the PMI Code of Coduct Would
Our duty to show a high regard for ourselves, others, and the resources entrusted to us.

Resources entrusted to us might be people, money, reputation, safety and natural or environmental resources.

-- REpsect property rights

-- Do not exercise personal power in order to personally benefit

-- Fostering an evnironment where diverse perspectives and views are encouraged and valued.
Define Fairness as the PMI Code of Coduct Would
Our duty to make decisions and act impartially and ojectively. Free from competing self-interest, prejudice, and favouritsim.

-- Transparency in decision making
--Examine and re-examine our impartiallity and objectivity
--Provide eq1ual access to information
-- Make oppo9rtunitiees available equally to qualified candidates.

-- Avoid conflict of interest. Bring it up and let them tell you how to handle it.

-- No showing favoritism.
Define Honesty as the PMI Code of Coduct Would
Our duty to understand the truth and act truthful manner voth in our communications and in our coduct.

-- Provide accurate and timely information.

-- Commit to promises in good faith.

-- Crete an environment where all fee safe to tell the truth.
Benefit Cost Ratio
Amount of money a project is going to make versus how much it will cost to build.
Net Present Value (NPV)
The actual value at a fiven time of the project minus all of the costs associated with it.
Opportunity Cost
Money you didn't get because you didn't choose a certain project.
Internal Rate of Return
Amount of money the project will return to the company that is funding it. Usually a percentage of the project's funding.
Depreciation
Rate at which project loses value over time.