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66 Cards in this Set

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in international politics there is no one state
organizations like the UN but they dont have the final say the same way state has control over its territory
Theories
problem is that they are problemistic
tell us what key parts we should look at in order to explain substantial evidence
2 basic theories
NORMATIVE
EMPERICAL
normative- meaning a theory of how things should look at in order to explain substantial evidence

emperical-how things are by observing
lowest to highest levels of abstraction
individual
role
govt
society
relations
world system
individual
psychology/preferences/socilazation/personality
-we may be able to understand great deal about foriegn policy by considering what any actor woul do in certain circumstances
ex. why did WW2 begin?
hitler was crazy
role
job/position in govt and society
not individual pref. but the incentives/constraints defined in the job or organ.
ex. why did gorbachev end cold war?
he thought it was in his interests as a head of communist party
Gov't structure
democracy vs autocracy
ex. why did cold war end?
B/c soviet union became more like its adversaries in west
society
rich/western/islamic the society level
society includes larger factors like the nature of population or economy
ex. why did cold war end?
us peacing loving nation helped accomodate end
IR LEVEL
dyadic traits
meaning relationship between 2 states

why did the cold war end?
USSR became relatively weak compared to US
Relations level we are talking about something relevant to BOTH STATES
World System
polarity and hegemony are concepts associated with system level.
why did cold war end?
bipolar world systems are unstable and unequal growth lead to soviet unions demise
Realism
welcome to the jungle
fight to survive
you need security in an anarchic system and only way to achieve that is through power.
Realism
ROLES
individuals: selfish, want power and security
Role: not important
Gov't structure: centralized
society: big/small states
Relations: all about power
system:anarchy
Realism sees states as unitary actors meaning that they dont think govt structure or particular individual matters
stress importance of major powers or concpt of polarity
polarity
hierachy
hegemon
# major powers in world system
states coming together called poles
major state in its region or on globe
liberalsim
people when they have the opportunity can organize a successful prosperous society and that this can partially be mimiocked at the international level.
Liberalism
LEVELS
individual- important that in free individuals can make a better world
role- can have influence on policy
gov't- type of regime is an important factor in determining int. events
society- important in type of state influences behavior
radicals
ideas are derived from Marxist thought, share with realists the convictions that ppl are motivated largely by self interest and are ready to dominate others and that those who would oppress must be resisted.
- consider states to be most important actors in world affairs
emperical theory
constructing models of what international actors do, how they do it and why with expectation that these models can be evaluated through observation
study of world politics
normative theory
rightness or wrongness of what they do
justice or injustice of the outcomes
nation
people who feel themselves part of some large identity group
* dont necessairly control specific territoy or have any substantial goverence
nationalism
complex set of psychological, cultural and social forces that drive the formation of a nation
*encourages strong feelings of pride and antagonism btw different groups
state
legal entity consisting of govt that manages the affairs of a population in a given territory
sovereignty
independance from any authority outside ones territory (external sovereignty)

supreme authority over all other entities with in ones territory (internal soverenigty)
principal actors in world system
Nations (curds, palestinians)
States (US, China)
IGO (nato, Un)
NGO (amnesty inte, Red Cross)
Multinational corp.
emperical statehood
states capacity to enforce its external independance and provide for internal stablity and well being
peace of westphalia
birth of modern state system
anarchy
arrangement that lacks a higher authority and central feature of the modern international system
primordial
bones of society - fundamental to who we are
instrumental
nationalism is used as a tool for leaders
states formed for 3 reasons
economic- important to have single currency or instituitional strucure to facilitate trade
military- smaller political entities were not as good as raising money and armies as larger states
technology- changed with gun powder
states have soverign authority over the territory they control
nations dont have defined or controlled territory
internal sover
state has sole claim to political authority with in territory
external sov
no other outside state can interfere with international workings of a state
nation-state
state grew out of sense of shared identity
multinational states
Nations with out state
US China
palestinians
IGO:intergovernmental organizations
groups of states that get together and work on common issues (must be state)
- varying degrees of influence on international realtions based on different charact. like what states are in IGOs and what they are trying to accomplish
Types of IGO
Limited purpose/restricted membership: NATO
General purpose/restricted membership: EU org of Amer states
Limited puropse/open membership: IMF, World Bank
General purpose/open membership: UN, League of Nations
NGO:nongovernmental organizations
organizations that operate internationally that anybody can participate in, people can just get together and organize
Types of NGO
Red Cross, Amnesty International, World Wildlife Foundation, Al Qaeda

can all affect international events
MNC:multinational corp
just businesses that operate overseas but they can be very big
ex. starbucks, walmart
IGOs
demanding changes in states policies
restrict states ability to do things like trade deals
membership in IGO can circumscribe what policies a state can make even with respect to domestic matters, a possible infringement on society
MNC
dont like labor costs, taxes or regulations a state imposes they can leave
often play states off one another for better deals on taxes or property
Realists: state was, is and always be the most important factor in system
IGO, NGO MNC dont have military so no power
Liberals: acknolowge that state is still the most important actor in intern system but is changing considerably
MNC IGO and NGO can facilitate commerce and cooperation btw states and possibly alter anarchic conditions of system
Geopolitics
spatial relationship that affects international realations
- relates to geographical features and locations that impact world politics
-includes who your neighbors are and borders you share
-resources also affect international events and make some places and regions more/less important
Technology
inventions that affected IR
nuclear weapons
airplanes
large ships with nav. devices
state system
way in which states interact with one another
alliances
codified agreement btw 2 states with respect to an outside threat or in terms of their military security more formal agreement
defense pact
kind of alliance in which the signatory state agree to come to each others aid if one is attacked
entente
kid of agreement that signifies shared interests but does not haev specific requirements
chain ganging
2 states in different alliance structures that the states they are aligned with may also get dragged into the fighting
non-alignment
states that may remain unattached by treaties or oter agreements
popular during cold war(indonesia, egypt) india remained unaffiliated with one of 2 major powers
term 3rd world
revisionary states
states that have tried to alter their place in world system
-agressive states then start conflicts in order to try to achieve their aims
-other major powers of the system will attempt to balance against these threats
multi polar systems are dangerous b/c
-incentive to BUCKPASS and not balance meaning states cant decide who should be the one to stand up to agressive state
- possiblility that balance maybe be hard to determine or easily altered b/c so many great powers to watch.
bipolar systems
downside of bipolar system is zero sum way in which all competition looks with both sides guarding their Spheres of influence
spheres of influence
those states or non state actors in regions in which you have vital interests or are with in your hierachy
unipolar systems
(american hegemony)
durability has been called into question by realist scholars. appears that states should try and form a coalition to balance against leading state
bargaining
intentions are demonstrated through behavior rather than direct communication or explicit negotations
bargaining
1st stage
2nd stage
comitment to deal in good faith both parties are negotation for purpose of reaching an agreement

bargaining over actual terms of agreement. defining solutions and working out accords
powerelite
pluralist
drawn from highest echelons of society determins nations goals
-held together by like minded individuals educatonal experience and prof. mingling

no single power elite. tent to weild influence over different issues (defense, health, edu) fight and win politcal battles
certain characteristics can influence how much power you have
terrain, mountains, jungle, bodies of water
people
behavioral power
change behavior of another state
compellence
influencing another country to halt a course of action it is persuing or to start a new course
deterrence
influence an actor not to do something it wouldnt do otherwise
fungability
difficult to take one kind of power and change it to another kind of power
soft power
ability to attract someone to your way of doing things
- changing goals, not behavior
-different forms:
idelogy, culture, institutions, success
diplomacy
is communication. IGOs help facilitate
do a few things:
conflict management
coordiantion
cross cultural exchange
negotation of treaties
program management of the foriegn policy, decisions of one country in regard to another