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20 Cards in this Set

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Why was there a need for second-generation platinum drugs?
Cell may develop resistance to cisplatin: accumulation of cisplatin in the cell, to overcome the deactivation of cisplatin by metallothionein (sulfur-containing) and to overcome the cells increased ability ro repair DNA
What are some side effects or symptoms of cisplatin?
kidney damage (nephrotoxicity), nausea and vomiting, alopecia, myelosuppression (inhibited bone marrow production), ototoxicity (neural damage in the ear)
What are the requirements for a platnium drug to be effective against cancer? [4]
Platinum should have an oxidation state of II or IV
Complex should be neutral to pass through the cell membrane
Complex must contain cis-leaving ligands (such as Cl- or oxygen) which can be replaced by water then DNA
Complex should have unreactive, primary amine non-leaving ligands (NH3) which form hydrogen bonds with DNA
Carboplatin
anti-cancer second-generation platinum drug which also reduced the risk of kidney damage (lung/ovarian cancer)
Discuss the structure of carboplatin
square planar complex with platinum (II), two cis-NH3 ligands, 5-membered bidentate chelate ring with an additional cyclobutane is the leaving ligand
Is cisplatin a chelate? Why?
No. There are no rings formed with the platinum, only monodentate Cl- and NH3
Why is carboplatin less nephrotoxic?
The bidentate cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate ligand may slow down the degredation into damaging derivatives
Oxaliplatin is used for
a drug for colorectal cancer which is less prone to cell resistance from being more "chemically bulky"
Discuss the structure of Oxaliplatin
platinum (II) square planar complex with 2 bidentate chelate-ring ligands
Gold forms stable compounds in +I and +III oxidation states. Which of these is toxic?
Gold (III) complexes are toxic.
What metal complexes are used for treating Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Copper (II) complexes as well as copper bracelets.
Discuss the chemistry of rheumatoid arthritis.
Elevated copper levels in the caueruplasmin in the blood and reduced levels in the liver.
How do copper bracelets work?
The amino acids in sweat react with copper metal in the presence of oxygen making the copper cross through the skin.
Relate between D-penicillamine and rheumatoid arthritis.
D-pen activates the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) which removes superoxide (a cause of joint inflamation)
Discuss the relationship between Copper II in the body and rheumatoid arthritis
In rheumatoid arthritis, there's an elevated level of copper-containing caeruloplasmin in the blood but a reduced level of copper in the liver.
Caeruloplasmin
the major copper-carrying protein in the blood; decreased levels in Wilson's disease and elevated levels in rheumatoid arthritis
Myocrisin
a gold-complex drug treatment for rheumatoid arthritis which has numerous toxic side effects
Name 3 Gold (I) complex-ed drugs used for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Which is the only one which is orally active?
Myocrisin & Solganal are injected intra-muscularly while auranofil is orally active
How do Gold (I) complexes help in treating rheumatoid arthritis?
The gold-complexes become concentrated in the inflamed joints and disrupt thiol cointaining enzymes which cause the inflammation
Thiol group
a -SH group