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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Platelets are also called______.
thrombocytes
Platelets are made in the _______.
bone marrow
Platelets are fragments of huge cells called______.
megakaryocytes
The prefix mega means______.
extremely large
Karyon means______,
kernal
-cyte means______.
cell
Describe platelets.
smaller than RBCs
colorless
no nucleus
mitochondria in cytoplasm
-smooth e.r.
-granules filled with clotting proteins and cytokines.
Typical lifespan of platelet is ______.
10 days
Define hemostasis.
Process of keeping blood within a damaged blood vessel.
3 major steps of homostasis.
1. vasoconstriction
2. temporary blockage by platelet plug
3. clot to seal hole
Immediate construction of damaged vessels is caused by what.
vasoconstrictive paracrines released by endothelium.
Vasconstriction temporarily decreases ________ and _______ helping formation of platelet plug.
flow
pressure
Vasconstriction temporarily decreases flow and pressure helping formation of ______.
Platelet plug
Putting pressure on a bleeding wound does what?
Decreases flow within the damaged vessel.
Mechanical blockage of hole by______.
platelet plug
Platelets stick to ______ collagen and become activated.
exposed
Platelets stick to exposed collagen and become ______.
activated
Activated platelets release ______ into the area around injury.
cytokines
Platelet factors reinforce ______ and activate more platelets, which aggregate and form a loose platelet plug.
local vasconstriction
Platelet factors reinforce local vasoconstriction and activate more platelets, which aggregate and form a loose ______.
platelet plug
Define coagulation cascade.
A series of reactions initiated by exposed collagen and tissue factor.
In the last step, ________ converts fibrinogen into fibrin.
thrombin
When fibrin fibers intertwine and reinforce the platelet plug it becomes a ____.
clot
The clot is slowly dissolved by which enzyme.
Plasmin.
Too little hemostasis allows ______.
excessive bleeding
Too much hemostasis allows ______.
thrombus or blood clot
Platelet activation begins ______.
clotting process
Platelets adhere to collagen by ______.
integrins
Integrins are membrane receptors that are linked to the ______.
cytoskeleton
What activates platelets ?
binding
Upon binding what is released?
Contents of intracellular granules.
Contents of intracellular granules includes serotonin, ADP and ______.
platelet-activating factor(PAF)
Contents of intracellular granules includes ________, ADP and platelet-activating factor (PAF).
serotonin
Contents of intracellular granules includes serotonin, ______ and platelet-activating factor (PAF
ADP
PAF sets up a (positive/negative) feedback loop by activating more platelets.
positive
PAF also stimulates pathways converting platelet membrane phospholipids into________.
thromboxane A2.
PAF also stimulates pathways converting platelet membrane ______ into thromboxane A2.
phospholipids
Serotonin and thromboxane A2 are ____________s.
vasoconstrictors
______and thromboxane A2 are vasoconstrictors.
Serotonin
Serotonin and ______ are vasoconstrictors.
thromboxane A2
Serotonin and thromboxane A2 contribute to platelet aggregation along with ______ and PAF
ADP
Serotonin and thromboxane A2 contribute to platelet aggregation along with ADP and ______.
PAF
Growing platelet plug seals the ___________.
damaged vessel wall
What keeps platelet plug from continuing to grow?
It will not adhere to normal endothelium.
Intact vascular endothelial cells convert their membrane lipids into what?
Prostacyclin, an eicosanoid
Prostacyclin blocks platelet ______ and aggregation.
adhesion
Prostacyclin blocks platelet adhesion and ______.
aggregation
Nitrous oxide (NO) also released by normal intact ______ also inhibits platelet adhesion.
endothelium
Nitrous oxide (NO) also released by normal intact endothelium also inhibits ______.
platelet adhesion
_____ also released by normal intact endothelium also inhibits platelet adhesion.
Nitrous oxide (NO)
______converts the platelet plug into a more stable clot.
Coagulation
Coagulation two pathways:
intrinsic and extrinsic
Intrinsic pathway begins with ______ exposure and uses plasma proteins.
collagen exposure
Intrinsic pathway begins with collagen exposure and uses ______.
plasma proteins
______ pathway begins with collagen exposure and uses plasma proteins.
Intrinsic pathway
Extrinsic pathway started by ______factor.
tissue
Intrinsic. Collagen activates the first enzyme, factor ______ to begin cascade.
XII
Intrinsic. ______ activates the first enzyme, factor XII to begin cascade.
Collagen
Tissue factor aka ___________.
tissue thromboplastin
TF activates factor VII to ______ the extrinsic pathway.
begin
Prostacyclin blocks platelet ______ and aggregation.
adhesion
Prostacyclin blocks platelet adhesion and ______.
aggregation
Nitrous oxide (NO) also released by normal intact ______ also inhibits platelet adhesion.
endothelium
Nitrous oxide (NO) also released by normal intact endothelium also inhibits ______.
platelet adhesion
_____ also released by normal intact endothelium also inhibits platelet adhesion.
Nitrous oxide (NO)
______converts the platelet plug into a more stable clot.
Coagulation
Coagulation two pathways:
intrinsic and extrinsic
Intrinsic pathway begins with ______ exposure and uses plasma proteins.
collagen exposure
Intrinsic pathway begins with collagen exposure and uses ______.
plasma proteins
______ pathway begins with collagen exposure and uses plasma proteins.
Intrinsic pathway
Extrinsic pathway started by ______factor.
tissue
Intrinsic. Collagen activates the first enzyme, factor ______ to begin cascade.
XII
Intrinsic. ______ activates the first enzyme, factor XII to begin cascade.
Collagen
Tissue factor aka ___________.
tissue thromboplastin
TF activates factor VII to ______ the extrinsic pathway.
begin