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28 Cards in this Set

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Geology
The study of the solid earth.
Pressure
The force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted.
Crust
The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface.
Mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
Lithosphere
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
Asthenosphere
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
Inner core
A dense ball of solid metal at the center of the Earth.
Outer core
A layer of molten iron and nickle that surrounds the inner core of the Earth.
Density
The measurement of how much mass is contained in a given volume of a substance.
Rock
The material that forms Earth's hard surface.
Fossil
The preserved remains or traces of living things that lived in the past.
Pangaea
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 225 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
Mid-Ocean Ridge
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary.
Sea-Floor Spreading
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
Deep Ocean Trench
A deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks towards the mantle.
Subduction
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
Rift Valley
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
Convergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
Divergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move away from eah other.
Strike-slip fault
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up and down motion.
Normal fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by compression in the crust.
Reverse fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust.
Hot spot
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
Transform boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
Deformation
A change in the volume or shape of the Earth's crust.
Fault-block mountain
A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock.
Land subsidence
A sinking or subsiding of a land surface as a result of geologic processes or of human activities.
Continental Drift
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface.