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56 Cards in this Set

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Adaptations to life on land that distinguish plants from green algae
1. cuticle
1a. stoma
1b. guard cells
2. protective pigments
3. thick spore/pollen walls
4. gametangia
5. embryos
Cuticle
Thick external layer that prevents water loss
Stomata (plural of stoma)
Openings in the cuticle to allow gas exchange and reduce water loss
Guard Cells
Sausage shaped cells that form the stomata
Protective Pigments
Protect against effects of UV radiation
Thick Spore/Pollen Walls
Prevent desiccation and decay of sperm
Gametangia
Cases that contain plant gametes
Archegonia
Female gametangia
Antheridia
Male gametangia
Embryos
Young plant contained in specialized, protective structure
Nontracheophytes
Plants without vascular tissue.
Lack a vascular system (except in some mosses where it is very simplistic).
Have a rudimentary system of cells that conduct water and nutrients.
Non-seed Tracheophytes
Plants without seeds, with vascular tissue
Seed plants (Gymnosperms and angiosperms)
Plants with seeds
Tracheophytes
Have a developed vascular system:
1) Xylem: carries water and minerals from roots to leaves (monodirectional)
2) Phloem: carries plant products (sugars, hormones, vitamins, etc) throughout the plant (bi-directional)
Liverworts (ph. Hepaticophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
A non-tracheophyte.
1) No specialized growing zone: growth from across the plant.
2) Lack stomata in their cuticle.
Hornworts (ph. Anthocerophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
Non-tracheophytes.
1) Growing zone at the basal end.
Mosses (ph. Bryophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
Non-tracheophytes.
1) Growing zone at the apical ends (move your fingertips!)
2) Transport mechanisms for water and sugars first emerged in mosses.
Tracheids
Cells specializing in carrying water and nutrients.
Tracheophyte adaptations which evolved over time
1. Roots
2. True leaves
3. Heterospory
3a. Megaspores
3b. Microspores
Heterospory
The production of gametes with distinctly different sizes.
Megaspore: female gametes
Microspore: male gametes
Club mosses (ph. Lycophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
Non-seed tracheophytes.
1. Apical cell division (fingertips and toes)
2. Simple leaves
3. Leaves arranged in a spiral.
Dominant generation is gametophyte.
Horsetails (ph. Pterophyta)
Genus Equisetium
A genus and phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
Non-seed tracheophytes.
1. Basal cell division
2. Simple leaves and true roots.
3. Leaves arranged in a whorl, or circle, around stem.
4. Also called scouring rush because of the silica deposits (like diatoms)
5. Store gold
Dominant generation is gametophyte.
Whisk ferns (ph. Pterophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
Non-seed tracheophytes.
1. No true leaves and no true roots.
2. Probably living relic to last vascular plants without roots or leaves.
Dominant generation is gametophyte.
Ferns (ph. Pterophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
Non-seed tracheophytes.
1. True roots and complex leaves.
2. Probably earliest plants with a complete vascular and anatomical structure to modern plants
3. Still no seeds - produce spores
4. Reproduction still tied to water.
Dominant generation is sporophyte.
Chlorophyll found in all plants
Chlorophyll a & b
Alternation of Generations
One stage of a plant's life is haploid, the other diploid.
In all seed plants, the diploid stage is most obvious.
Haploid generations are fed by diploid stage.
This process exists in all levels of plant evolution, but dominant generation varies.
Sporophyte
Produces spores.
Is the diploid generation.
Entire plant in plants where this is the dominant generation.
Gametophyte
Produces gametes.
Haploid generation.
The reproductive organs in cones and flowers are of this generation.
Gymnosperms
"Naked Seeds"
No fruit surrounds the seeds.
Evolutionary innovations of Gymnosperms
1. Well developed system of water conducting vessels using tracheids, but no nutrional support cells for the tracheids.
2. Reproductive system is independent of water for transporting pollen, spores, and/or sperm.
Cycad trees (ph. Cycadophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
1) Resemble palm trees but reproduce with cone-like structures.
2) Dominant tree during Jurassic period and food for some dinosaurs.
Gymnosperms.
Ginkgo trees (ph. Ginkgophyta)
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
1) Single species remains: G. biloba
2) Male & female trees (dioecious) (females stink)
Gymnosperms.
Gnetophyta
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
1) Primitive plants
2) Small, low growing, desert plant.
Gymnosperms.
Coniferophyta
A phylum of the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.
1) Most common extant species of gymnosperms
2) Pine trees and red woods are examples
Cones
Reproductive structures for conifers.
Contain reproductive structures and protect seeds from desiccation or damage.
Reproductive structures develop separately inside.
Some have become adapted to surviving forest fires by only opening after 500 degrees fahrenheit.
Microsporangia
Male reproductive organs contained in small cones.
Megasporangia
Female reproductive organs contained in large cones.
Angiosperms
"Flowering Seeds"
1. Have flowers
2. Gametophyte generation (flowers) is relatively small and quite dependent on the sporophyte generation)
3. Produce fruit from the flowers
4. Seeds are enclosed in the carpel (pistil)
5. Xylem and phloem have companion cells to feed & support tracheids
Cotyledons
"Seed leaf", the leaves of an embryonic plant used to store and collect food
Monocots
Plants with one cotyledon
1) Veins in leaves are parallel to one another
2) Parts of the flower are in multiples of 3
Eudicots (dicots)
Plants with two cotyledons.
1) Veins are in a net pattern in leaves
2) Parts of the flower are multiples of 4 or 5.
Petals
Modified leaves of a flower
Corrola
All of the petals of a flower
Sepal
Green, modified leaves that contains the corrola
Calyx
All of the sepals of a flower combined
Pistil (or carpel)
Modified leaf containing female reproductive structure.
Made of:
1) Stigma (opening)
2) Style (shaft)
3) Ovary (contains one or more ovule)
4) Ovule (contains egg cells)
Stamen
Male reproductive structure of a flower.
Made of:
1) Anther (microsporangia)
2) Filament - shaft, holds anther
Receptacle
Tip of the stem that supports the flower
Swollen ovule formed fruit
Plums, peaches, grapes, oranges, etc
SQUISH
Grow in tropical climates
Swollen receptacle formed fruit
Apples, pears, etc
CRUNCH
Grow in moderate climates.
Complete flowers
Flowers that have stamens, carpels, petals, and sepals.
Are always perfect and monoecious.
Incomplete flowers
Flowers that are missing one or more of the following: carpels, stamens, petals, or sepals.
May be perfect or imperfect.
Perfect flowers
Flowers that contain both stamens and carpels.
Could be either complete or incomplete.
Imperfect flowers
Flowers that contain only one sex.
Are always incomplete.
Monoecious plants
"One house"
Both sexes are on the same plant
Dioecious plants
"Two houses"
Male or female plants (each plant has only one gender)