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6 Cards in this Set

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What are the different groups of Gymnosperms?
cycads

conifers

ginkgos

gnetales
What is different about gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants?
much reduced size and complexity of the gametophyte

shift from motile to non-motile gametes--so no need for water

evolution of the seed, which is an embryo of the sporophyte in a protective packaged that includes food suply.
Key features of the gymnosperm
1.heterosporous-
-megaspore becomes the female gametophyte, which produces the egg
-microspore becomes the male gametophyte which produces the sperm

2.fertilization is no longer dependent on water. the pollen grain si born by the wind to the ovule where it releases sperm in the pollen tube.

3. the female gametophyte is not free leaving but is always attatched to and protected by sporophytic tissue

4.the seed protects and provides food for the sporophyte embryo. the gametophytic tissue supplies food, while sporphytic tissue makes the seed coat.
Groups of Angiosperms
monocot

archaenthus

orchidacae

asteraceae
Key innovations for angiosperms
-use vessels instead of tracheids so they can receieve more water easier

-can mature faster than gymnosperms

-diversity of pollination

-fruit attracts animals and spread seed with their poop
double fertilization
only in angiosperms

pollen has 2 sperm

-one sperm fertilizes the egg

other sperm fuses with the 2 other nuclei and forms endosperm--creates the nutrient tissue