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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the three divisions of gymnosperm
1. conifers
2. cycads
3. ginkos
Name the two divisions of seed producing vascular plants and describe them:
1. gymnosperm-produce seeds without flowers and fruits
2. anglosperm-produce seeds with fruits and flowers
Name an aspect of conifers:
have needle like leaves that are well adapted for dry conditions
Name an aspect of cycads:
large leafed plants that look like palms
Name three aspects of ginkgos (ginkophyta)
1. only non-extinct species of that division is ginkophyta
2. the male trees have cones (strobili)
3. the female tree carries fleshy and smelly seeds at the end of the short stalks
Name two important adaptations of angiosperms
1. flowers
2. fruits
List two major aspects of flowers:
1. they promote fertilization
2. most flowers are specalized to ensure pollination by only one group of animals such as birds, insects and even bats and small mammals
What is coevolution and how does pertain to flowers and insects?
-The mutual adaptation of two separate evolutionary lines
-insects pollinate the flowers, flowers provide energy for insects
Name different aspects of fruits
1. promotes survival and dispersal of seeds
2. a fruit is a mature ovary that encloses and protects the seeds
3. many fruits promote dispersal through animals
What is double fertilization?
Two separate fertilizations
What type of fertilization occurs in angiosperms?
Double fertilization
Name two aspects of double fertilization:
1. one sperm nucleus fuses with ovum forming the zygote
2. the other separate fertilization forms a triploid nucleus, which creates the seed's endosperm (produces food for the developing embryo)
Plants are _______, which perform __________
1. multi-cellular organisms
2. photosynthesis
Plants produce the ________ we breathe
True or false: plants support the entire web of terrestial life
List three major advantages for photo synthetic organisms:
1. more sunlight (unfiltered by the water)
2. more carbon dioxide (more abundant in the atmosphere than dissolved in water)
3. more reliable supply of minerals and other nutrients
In order for plants to invade land, plants need to be able to (list 3)
1. obtain, distribute and conserve water
2. accomplish fertilization with little to no water
3. support their own weight (no gravity underwater, gravity out of water)
Define: Alteration of Generations
A sexual life cycle in which the alternating haploid and diploid phases both consist of a multicellular structure.
Name the two groups that plants can be separated into:
1. Tracheophytes
2. Bryophytes
List aspects of Tracheophytes
Vascular plants
Includes all of the most familiar living plants
List aspects of bryophytes
1.Nonvascular plants
2.Include mosses, liverworts and hornworts
3. anchor to surfaces by special "root-like" structure called a rhizoid
True or false: rhizoids are not designed for absorbtion of water and nutrients?
All bryophytes lack a ____________ so they require _________ for _________
and fertilization by free-swimming sperm
1. specialized vascular system
2. freestanding water
3. photosynthesis
Excluding ________, all parts of a bryophyte are absorbant
1. rhizoids
What is the most prominent phase of a bryophyte's life cycle?
haploid gametophyte
Gametes unite in the female gameyophyte forming the diploid phase called:
the sporophyte
Name the function(s) of the sporophyte
produces haploid spores via meiosis
True or false: the haploid spores can germinate into male and female hapliod gametopgytes
Because sunlight usually dries bryophytes out, they usually grow in ______
1. Shaded areas
Vascular Plants are also known as:
Tracheophytes are further subdivided into:
1. seedless plants
2. seed plants
True or false: In non-vascular plants, the diploid sporophytes are dominant
False: vascular plants
All plants are descended from what?
The transport system of vascular plants contain two distinct types of conducting tubes:
1. Xylem
2. Phloem
Define: Xylem
The Xylem carries water and minerals from the roofs to the leaves for use in photosynthesis
Define: Phloem
The Phloem distributes the sugars and other organiz compounds made in the leaves to the rest of the plant
Name an example of a seedles vascular plant
the fern
True or false: seedless plants require a wet environment
Why does reproduction in ferns and other seedless plants resemble that of bryophytes?
They need a thin film of water for the sperm to travel
What are the tiny "cups" on the underside of the sporophylls called?
What is the function of the 'sori' ?
Produce haploid spores via meiosis
Name the two divisions of seed producing vascular plants and describe them:
1. gymnosperm-produce seeds without flowers and fruits
2. anglosperm-produce seeds with fruits and flowers