• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/53

Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the first biotechnology patent issued?
It was for a microorganism that could consume hydrocarbons from oil spills.
How old can biotechnology be argued to be?
Relatively 10,000 years old. It began with the collection of seeds for desirable traits and cross breeding with other species.

In the 1970's the first scientifically genetically modified organisms were created. That sparked the debate and it has been raging ever since.
What is a good description for genetic engineering?
It is a term limited to the introduction of novel genes into an organism in a laboratory.
Is there a large difference between traditional breeding and genetic engineering?
It is a very grey area because through traditional breeding plants have hundreds or thousands of genes cross over.
What is food security?
Where every human being has access to enough food to sustain a healthy and productive life. It has three components:

Food availability;
Access to food; and
Utilization of food.

The reverse scenario is food insecurity.
Does the world produce enough food to provide the minimum daily caloric intake requirement for EVERY human being on this planet?
Yes, since 1974.
What are the causes of food insecurity?
Poverty;

Powerlessness to champion their cause;

Violent conflicts;

Discrimination; and,

Demographic factors.
How may agricultural biotechnology aid in dealing with food insecurity?
Although it is only one part of the equation, it can:

Increase food production per unit area of arable land;

Improve nutrient composition and deliver the requirements in a more efficient manner;

Improve the yield through herbicide pet/pathogen and abiotic stress tolerance;

Can be used as biofactories with plant made pharmaceuticals.
What is the practical reasoning of introducing biotechnology into the lifecycle of a plant?
It can make growing much more efficient, and every single developmental stage offers opportunity for transgenic enhancement.
What is the difference between abiotic stress and biotic stress?
Abiotic stress is the negative impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment.

Biotic stress occurs as a result of damage done to plants by other living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, harmful insects, and weeds.
Why is gene expression regulated?
Because without regulated growth results in abnormalities.
What is etiolation?
It occurs when plants are grown in either partial or complete absence of light, and is characterized by long, weak stems; smaller, sparser leaves due to longer internodes; and a pale yellow colour.

This is a mechanism to increase the likelihood that a plant will reach a light souce, often from under leaf litter or underneath shade from competing plants.
In terms of light, how much is needed to start photosynthesis?
It can begin with a single photon of light.
Describe the hormone group Auxins.
Auxins have an essential role in coordination of many growth and behavioural processes in the plant life cycle.

Auxins stimulates cell elongation by stimulating wall loosening factors, such as elastins, to loosen cell walls. It also stimulates cell devision.

Auxin participates in phototropism, geotripism, hydrotropism and other developmental changes. The uneven distribution of auxin, due to environmental cues such as unidirection light or gravity force results in uneven plant tissue growth.
Describe the hormone group gibberellins.
Gibberellins are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction, and leaf and fruit senescence.
Describe the hormone group cytokinins.
Cytokinins promote cell division (or cytokinesis) in plant roots and shoots. They are primarily involved in cell growth and differentiation, but also affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence.
What are the seven different kinds of hormones important for this course?
Auxins;
Gibberellins;
Cytokinins;
Ethylene;
Jasmonic acid;
Salicylic acid; and,
Abscisic acid.
Describe the hormone ethylene.
It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or regulating the ripening of fruit, the opening of flowers, and the abscission (shedding) of leaves.
Describe the hormone Jasmonic acid
It's major function is regulating plant growth including growth inhibitions, senescence, and leaf abscission.

It has an important role in response to wounding of plants and systemic acquited resistence; when plants are attacked by insects, they respond by releasing JA, which inhibits the insects ability to digest protein.
Describe the hormone Salicylic acid.
It is a crystalline organic acid and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration and ion uptake and transport.

It may also play a role in inducing specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure, endogenous signalling, and mediating in plant defence against pathogens.
Describe the hormone Abscisic acid.
ABA-mediated signalling plays an important part in plant responses to environmental stress and pathogens.

It is the 'stress' hormone
What are the two most important hormones in terms of biotechnology?

VERY IMPORTANT!!!!!
Auxins and cytokinins because they have application in plant cells that can be manipulated in a test tube.
A hormone that is released into the air is considered to be ______?
Volatile.
What are meristems?
Meristems are extremely important as they are undifferentiated cells (akin to animal stem cells) and continuously give rise to ne cells and organs.

This is a simple solution to ageing, allowing old organs to die and make new ones (the old leaves fall off and new ones are grown).
What are the most active meristems in the plant?
The apical meristem, found in teh tip of the shoot and at the tip of the roots.
What are the lateral roots formed from?
They are not formed from the root merical meristem but an internal meristem.
Define mersitem.

THE ROLE OF MERISTEMS ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO KNOW.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Define pericycle.
The pericycle is a cylinder of parenchyma cells that lies just inside the endodermis and is the outer most part of the stele of plants.

In dicots, it also has the capacity to produce lateral roots. Branch roots arise from this primary meristem tissue. In plants undergoing secondary growth, the pericycle contributes to the vascular cambium often diverging into a cork cambium.
When thinking of meristematic cell growth in plants, what is it important to appreciate?
That every cell is communicating to it's surrounding cells, letting others know what type of cell it will become.
What is a leaf primordia?
A leaf organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development.

Cells at the shoot apical meristem summit serve as stems cells to the surrounding peripheral region, where they proliferate rapidly and are incorporated into differentiating new leaf matter.
What is photoperiodism?
The physiological reaction or oranisms to the length of day or night. It occurs in plants and animals.
Define mersitem.

THE ROLE OF MERISTEMS ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO KNOW.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Define pericycle.
The pericycle is a cylinder of parenchyma cells that lies just inside the endodermis and is the outer most part of the stele of plants.

In dicots, it also has the capacity to produce lateral roots. Branch roots arise from this primary meristem tissue. In plants undergoing secondary growth, the pericycle contributes to the vascular cambium often diverging into a cork cambium.
When thinking of meristematic cell growth in plants, what is it important to appreciate?
That every cell is communicating to it's surrounding cells, letting others know what type of cell it will become.
What is a leaf primordia?
A leaf organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development.

Cells at the shoot apical meristem summit serve as stems cells to the surrounding peripheral region, where they proliferate rapidly and are incorporated into differentiating new leaf matter.
What is photoperiodism?
The physiological reaction or oranisms to the length of day or night. It occurs in plants and animals.
What is vernalization?
The acquisition of a plant's ability to flower or germinate in the spring by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter.
What is epigenetic regulation?
The study of inherited changes in phenotype or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.

These changes may remain through cell divisions for the remaineder of the cell's life and may also last for multiple generations; however, there is no change in teh underlying DNA sequence of the organism.

Instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently.
How do epigenetic relate to human nutrition.
If consumed a food may cause a non-genetic factor that changes a genes expression and causes disease.
What is a northern blot?
A technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression by detection of RNA in a sample.

With northern blotting it is possible to observe cellular control over structure and function by determining the particular gene expression levels during differentiation, morphogenesis, as well as abnormal or diseased conditions.
What is the life cycle of a plant? (six stages)
Zygote formation (fertilization);

Seed/embryogenesis;

Seed germination;

Development of the vegetative phase (roots and shoots);

Formation of sexual organs (flowers); and,

Reproduction - formation of zygote.
Plant growth and development, from germination to death is controlled by what two major factors?
Genetic makeup of the plant; and,

Environmental factors that influence the expression of the plant genetic makeup.
The environment affects plant growth and development describe what they are.
Plants heed environmental cues to progress from one developmental stage to the other.

The environmental changes affect hormonal status, which in turn regulate gene expression. Gene expression, in turn, determines growth and development.
What to phytohormones control?
They are central to growth and development.
Describe phytohormones briefly.
There are at least 7 different kinds of phytohormones, all of them are small molecules. They are transported in the transpiration stream of the xylem, between cell to cell, and can be released into teh air.
Give three unique characteristics of a plant's meristem.
Meristems are self-regenerating;

Vegetative meristems can retain their embryonic character for a long time (years in the case of trees); and,

They do not become committed to a differentiation pathway and retain cell division capacity.
What are secondary meristems?
They are auxillary meristems, derived from the stem apical meristem which produced branches from the main axis..
List the types of secondary meristems.
Intercalary meristems (present in cereals and other grasses in addition to the apical meristem. These growth zones explain why grasses shoot up after being cut);

Branch root meristems - similar to the pimary root meristem and form from pericycle cells;

The vasuclar cambium - produces woody tissues of stem and roots; and,

Cork cambium - bark or periderm development.
What are the three stages of leaf development?
Organogenesis - formation of leaf primordia;

Development of suborgan domains - different regions of primordia acquire identity as specific parts of the leaf; and,

Cell and tissue differentiation - cells differentiate in a genetically predetermined manner.
What are the four developmental zones of the root tip?
The root cap, meristematic zone, elongation zone and maturation zone.

All four of these zones occupy a little more than a millimeter of the tip of an Arabidopsis root.
What are the four functions of the developmental zones?
The root cap protects the apical meristem from mechanical injury, help perceive gravitational stimulii and secrete substances to make soil penetration easier;

The meristematic zone, located under the root cap generates the primary root;

The elongation zone is the site of rapid cell elongations; and,

The maturation zone, where cells acquire differentiated characteristics. It is not responsible for division or elongation.
What is photoperiodism?
It is the response to the length of day.
What is vernalization?
The promotion of flowering brought about by exposure to cold at subsequent higher temperatures.

Vernalization requires stable changes in gene expression, changes that are present in the meristem after the cold treatment. Changes are present after the signal is removed - epigenetic regulation.