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42 Cards in this Set

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de novo
new
four stages of 'de novo' adventitious root formation
1.
2.
3.
4.
what is callus?
an irregular mass of parenchyma cells in various stages of lignification
p286
adventitious
accidental, occurring in an unusual place
preformed adventitious roots
develop naturally on stems while they are still attached to the parent plant
p279
wound induced adventitious roots
develop only after a cut is made, in response to wounding
What are the advantages of wounding?
wounded tissues are stimulated into cell division and production of roots
Auxins

effects on plant growth/rooting
-Promotes adventitious root formation
-Has the greatest effect on root formation in cuttings
Gibberellins

effects on plant growth/rooting
-inhibits adventitious bud and root formation
-can promote shoot elongation AFTER formation
Ethylene

effects on plant growth/rooting
-better in intact plants not cuttings, herbaceous rather than woody, & plants having preformed root initials
-not promotive in bud & shoot formation
Abscisic Acid-ABA

effects on plant growth/rooting
x
Cytokinins

effects on plant growth/rooting
-inhibits root formation

-promotes bud & shoot formation
Best time to take cuttings of broad leaved and narrow leaved evergreens
during their one or more flushes of growth throughout the year (growing season)
Benefits of applying mist to a cutting
-slows down leaf transpiration
-lowers ambient air temperature
preformed (latent) roots
develop naturally on stems while still attached to the parent plant
wound induced roots
develop only after cut is made in response to wounding
4 stages of de novo adventitious root formation
1. differentiation of specific differentiated cells
2. formation of root intitials
3. development of root initials into organized root primordia
4. growth and emergence of the root primordia outward
What is polarity?
condition inherent in cuttings that exhibits different properties in opposite parts
distal
nearest the shoot tip
proximal
nearest the crown
crown
junction of the shoot and root system
growth regulator that has the greatest effect on root formation in cuttings
auxins
Of all plant growth regulators, this has the greatest effect on root formation in cuttings
Auxins
2 types of adventitious roots
preformed

wound induced
preformed adventitious roots
develop naturally on stems while still attached to the parent plant
wound induced adventitious roots
develop only after a cut is made in response to wounding
what is callus?
an undifferentiated mass of cells, develops as a response to wounding
meristems
areas of active cell division and growth in plants
Stem and leaf bud cuttings need to form...
...new adventitious roots
Root cuttings and leaf cuttings must initiate...
...adventitous roots and adventitious buds
_______ is a part of plant propagation
failure
3 classes with regard to growth regulators effects on rooting
1. easy to root
2. moderately easy to root
3. recalcitrant
recalcitrant
-resistant, difficult
-in regards to roots, lacks the cell sensitivity to respond
easy to root
plants that have all the essential substances plus auxins. Rapid root formation occurs.
moderately easy to root
plants in which the naturally occurring root morphogens are present in ample amounts, limited auxins. Auxin is needed to enhance rooting.
Only ________ cuttings should be collected for propagation
high-quality
Propagators prefer to collect propagules from stock plants ...
...early in the day when cuttings are still turgid (filled with water)
If cuttings cannot be stuck immediately....
...they are misted to reduce transpiration and refrigerated
successful storage of unrooted cuttings depends on...
...storage conditions, state of the cuttings, and species
when storing unrooted cuttings, it is best to maintain...
...100 % humidity
when storing unrooted cuttings, the temperature should be...
...as low as the hardiness of the species can tolerate
root morphogen
substance that stimulates rooting. It can be auxin or a combination of substances with auxin