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111 Cards in this Set

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The direction, or the gradient of light
Allow a plant to grow or to orient its leaves towards a region of bright light
The duration of light (length of the day) provides information about the time of the year
Day length is an infallible indicator of season
Roots that grow downward encounter?
water and nutrients
___ that grow upward encounter better conditions for photosynthesis, pollination and seed distribution
5
shoots
After a ___ touches an object, it grows around it, and finds support
tendril
Many flowers that have fused petals or carpels start with separate ___ that grow together and fuse, acting as a single unit
primordia
critically important ___ occur in plants during winter
metabolism
___ temperatures are required for normal flowering of biennial and many perennial plants
cold
Biennial plants require ____ to produce flowers
vernalization
____ turn and grow toward gravity, not toward water
roots
___ scarcity triggers specific adaptive responses
water
Production of the hormone ____ ___ (ABA) which causes guard cells to lose K+ and close stomatal pores
absicisic acid
It is a growth response oriented with regard to the stimulus
tropic response
A ____ tropism is growth toward the stimulus
positive
a ___ tropism is growth away from the stimulus
negative
____ is growth at an angle (e.g., branches and secondary roots)
plagiotropism
When touch is the stimulus, the response is ____ (e.g., tendrils)
thigmotropism
Pollen tubes of flowering plants may display positive ____
chemotropism
It is a stereotyped non-growth response that is not oriented with regard to the stimulus
nastic responses
___ response in Venus’ flytrap
thigmonastic
a ____ response based on the presence or absence of light
photonastic
Nastic movements are based on changes in ___ pressure (motor cells)
turgor
Also called morphogenetic response, causes a change in the “quality” of the plant
morphogenic response
This change occurs in the metabolism of a tissue or even the entire plant
morphogenic response
the induction to form flowers, the induction of dormant seeds to germinate, the induction of buds to become dormant
morphogenic responses
The formation of fibrous wood when a stem or branch is tilted and becomes stressed by gravity is a ___ response
gravimorphogenic
Conversion from the vegetative to the floral condition is a common ____ response
photomorphogenic
Is a response in which a cell swims toward a stimulus
positive taxis
Is a response in which a cell swims away from a stimulus
negative taxis
In plants like mosses, ferns, cycads, and Ginkgo, sperm cells swim to egg cells by following a chemical gradient
chemotaxis
___ allows them to swim toward light for photosynthesis or away from light that is too intense
phototaxis
1.environmental or physiological signal...2.receptor..3.signal transduction pathway...4.response
components of signal transduction
ex of environmental or physiological signal
environmental: light, temp, or touch...physiological:hormone, nutrient
ex of receptor
receptor kinase, g-protein-coupled receptor
ex of signal transduction pathway
kinase, calcium,lipids, pH
ex of response
gene expression, cytoskeleton, enzyme activity
Low temperature for ____ appears to be detected by buds
vernalization
In root caps, statocytes have statoliths, that sink in response to ___
gravity
The site of ____ is tentatively assumed to be site of transduction
perception
where the stimulus is converted into a form that can be transmitted and trigger a reaction at a response site
transduction
Two factors are important in perception and transduction
presentation time and threshold
is the length of time the stimulus must be present for the perceptive cells to react and complete transduction
presentation time
a root must lie on its side long enough for statoliths to sink to the new bottom of the cell
presentation time for gravitropism
refers to the level of stimulus that must be present during the presentation time to cause perception and transduction
threshold
In an ___ response, after the threshold and presentation time requirements are met, the stimulus is no longer important; the response is completely internal (e.g., poinsettia)
all or none
___ responses, the amount or duration of the stimulus affects the amount or duration of the response (e.g., turnip, some varieties of cotton, potato
dosage-dependent
____ ____ are organic chemicals produced in one part of the plant and then transported to other parts, where they initiate a response
plant hormones
The first plant hormone discovered
auxin
identified as being indoleacetic acid (IAA)
auxin
The most active centers of ___ synthesis are SAM, young leaves, and fruits
auxin
___is present in root tips, but it is believed to be transported there from the shoot
auxin
In addition to hormone transport in the phloem, a second mechanism exists for auxin only: ____ ___
polar transport
In shoots and leaves, auxin moves ___– from apex to the base of the plant
basipetally
In roots, auxin moves ___ toward the root apex
acropetally
what is cytokinins
plant hormone
___, the first one discovered, is an artificial cytokinin
kinetin
wat are gibberellins
plant hormone
could easily be obtained from fungi
gibberellic acid
___ and ___are more active and important in plants
GA1 and GA19
___ is involved in many types of stress resistance
ABA (abscisic acid)
___ causes guard cells to close stomatal pores under water-stress conditions
aba
___ is the only gaseous plant hormone, and it has the simplest structure
ethylene
has effects during fruit development
ethylene
Fruits such as apple, avocado, banana, mango, and tomato are ___ fruits
climacteric
ripen slowly as they mature, but numerous developmental changes occur rapidly in the final stages
climacteric fruits
In ____ fruits such as cherry, lemon, and orange, ethylene does not stimulate its own production
nonclimacteric
Are complex chemicals involved in leaf morphogenesis, root and stem growth and vascular differentiation
Brassinosteroids
It is involved in defense against animals and fungi
jasmonic acid
It is related to aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), it is involved in resistance to pathogens (virus)
Salicylic acid
involved in plant-insect interactions (e.g., aphids)
salicylic acid
___ are carotenoid-derived hormones
strigolactones
Endogenous ____ or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants
strigolactones
____ trigger the germination of mycorrhizal fungus spores and seeds of parasitic plants
strigolactones
It is hypothesized that ___ symbiosis helped the terrestrial plants to make the transition to the land
AM
____= small tree
ARBUSCULUM
___= fungus
MYCOS
‘___= root
RHIZA
___ fungi are members of the Glomeromycota
AM
Phosphate and nitrogen are provided by the ___ fungus in exchange for carbon
AM
___-type: form dichotomously branched arbuscules
ARUM
___-type: form coil-like branched arbuscules
PARIS
Fungi secret ___that helps with soil aggregation
GLOMALIN
___fungi forms a special type of appressoria (plural) called hyphopodia that develop from mature hyphae (plural)
AM
Plant cells produce a pre-penetration apparatus
PPA
A fungal hypha (sing.) enters the ___, which guides the fungus through the root cells toward the inner cortex
PPA
Perception of ___ fungal triggers early signal transduction (7 components)
AM
___ give up mineral
nutrient
FUNGI
Biological fixation of nitrogen is the prokaryotic conversion of molecular nitrogen to ___
AMMONIA
Nitrogen fixation requires ___ conditions
ANAEROBIC
Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria reside within ____
NODULES
Gram negative bacteria: ___
RHIZOBIUM
Forms symbiosis with the Fabaceae plant family
RHIZOBIUM
The bacteria provide ____(NH3/NH4+) and the plant provides nutrients and carbohydrates
NITROGEN
Involves nodule organogenesis
RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS
Plant genes specific to nodules are called ___ (Nod) genes
NODULIN
Rhizobial genes that participate in nodule formation are called ____ (nod) genes
NODULATION
Nodules contain an oxygen-binding heme protein called ___
LEGHEMOGLOBIN
It is present in the cytoplasm of infected nodule cells at high concentration and gives the nodules a pink color
LEGHEMOGLOBIN
Its function is to help transport O2 to the respiring symbiotic bacterial cells
LEGHEMOGLOBIN
The ____ uses a specialized electron transport chain with an oxidase that has high affinity for O2
BACTEROID
The perception of Nod factors by the plant triggers several ___ symbiosis responses
EARLY
Ion fluxes, calcium spiking, root hair deformation, cortical cell division, and formation of an infection thread that guides the bacteria to the emerging ___
PRIMORDIUM
A hypothetical scheme is proposed for the nod-factor ___ process
INDEPENDENT
Cortex cells differentiate and start dividing, forming a distinct area, called a nodule ____, from which the nodule develops
PRIMORDIUM
The bacteria stops dividing and differentiate/enlarge into nitrogen-fixing endosymbiotic organelles called ___
BACTEROIDS
The membrane surrounding the bacteroids is called ___ membrane
PERIBACTEROID
___ display various shapes: round (e), collaroid (f), or elongated (g)
NODULES
___ factors are highly specific and active at very low concentrations
NOD
___ factors induce cellular and molecular responses in different cell layers
NOD
Chemicals (EMS) or Gamma ray irradiation on seeds
MUTAGENESIS
The ___ plants are from the mutagenized seeds
M1