• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rhizoids
rootlike structures that anchor the thallus to the ground
thallus
plant body of a bryophyte
What is the symmetry of a liverwort thallus?
bilateral, dorsoventrally flat
What is the symmetry of a moss thallus?
radial, erect
In bryophytes which phase, gametophyte or sporophyte, is dominant?
gametophyte (eventually the sporophyte is completely dependent on the gametophyte)
Antheridia
male sex organs that produce swimming, biflagellate sperm
How do sperm get to eggs?
swim through water and down the neck canal
Archegonia
female sex organs
Where does the zygote mature?
In the archegonium and produces a sporophyte that remains dependent on the gametophyte
hepaticophyta
liverworts
chlorenchyma
in the air chambers on the dorsal surface of the thallus that contain chloroplasts
How do liverworts asexually produce?
fragmentation and/or gemmae cups
gemmae cups
on dorsal surface of thallus near midrib vein; contain gemmae inside that're splashed out in the rain and if land in a favorable environment they produce a new gametophyte
Are Marchantia dioecious or monoceious?
dioecious (separate male and female plants)
Archegoniophores
stalks on female plants that have archegonia
Antheridiophores
stalks on male plants that have antheridia
neck
narrow portion of the archegonium
neck canal
portion of the neck that sperm swim down to fertilize the egg in the archegonium
venter
dilated portion of the archegonium that contains the egg
Which are there more of, eggs or sperm?
sperm
foot
structure that connects the nonphotosynthetic sporophyte to the photosynthetic gametophyte
spores
produced by meiosis in a capsule that is on a stalk that extends downward from foot
elaters
elongated cells amongst spores that help with dispersal by twisting
(coil when humid and straighten when dry releasing spores)
are spores haploid or diploid?
haploid
how many cells thick is a Polytrichum?
1
do moss and liverworts have stomata?
Moss do (can be open/closed)
Liverworts don't, they have pores that can't be closed so they lose water more easily
Compare the symmetry of a moss gametophyte and a liverwort gametophyte.
moss gametophyte is radially symmetrical
liverwort gametophyte is bilaterally symmetrical
What moss is often used to ship items?
Sphagnum because it absorbs lots of water and can keep things moist
How do mosses asexually reproduce?
fragmentation
Are mosses dioecious or monoecious?
dioecious
seta
stalks of moss with capsules on top that make up the sporophyte
calyptra
remains of archegonium that covers the apex of the capsule;
falls off when capsule matures
what are inside the capsule?
haploid spores formed by meiosis
operculum
caplike structure at the tip of a capsule
(if you remove it, there are hairlike teeth lining the capsule that help control release of spores)
How do teeth lining the capsule control the release of spores?
in wet weather, bend inward and prevent release.
in dry weather, bend outward and help spore distribution by wind
what process produces spores?
meiosis
Is the capsule haploid or diploid?
diploid
protonema
a structure that looks like a branching filamentous alga that forms from the germination of a moss' haploid spores
What is the smallest group of bryophytes?
hornworts
Where are spores produced in hornworts?
in the horn
midrib vein
main vein down the center of a leaf
Where do sporophytes develop?
in the archegonium after fertilization by sperm