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112 Cards in this Set

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Plants that are replaced by other plants after one or a few generations, because they cannot reproduce in competition with mature plants of their own species.
Seral, or successional, plants
Plants that can reproduce generation after generation in the same environment, until a disturbance alters the habitat.
Climax plants
Washington Plant Community:

low vegetation; short, cool growing season
Alpine Tundra
Washington Plant Community:

mixed forest and open meadows; short growing season, but not as short
or cool as tundra
Sub-Alpine
Washington Plant Community:

continuous tree canopy; species composition varies with
environmental conditions (precip, temp, etc.)
Montane Forest
Washington Plant Community:

forest with sufficient rainfall to sustain a heavy epiphytic plant community (eg, Pacific coast side of Olympic Peninsula and places on west slope of Cascades. Needs at least 2 meters of rainfall per year.
Temperate Rain Forest
Washington Plant Community:

long growing season; lots of precip (30”-100”+ per year)
Lowland Forest
Washington Plant Community:

sagebrush and bunch grasses; low precipitation (5-20” per year)
Shrub-Steppe
tetradynamous stamens
4 long + 2 short - Brassicaceae
monadelphous stamens
filaments fused into a tube; free at end - Malvaceae
diadelphous stamens
9 fused at the filaments, one free - Fabaceae (Papilionoideae)
didynamous stamens
2 long and 2 short – Lamiaceae & Scrophulariaceae
Pseudanthium (involucral bracts)
Many small flowers together making up a structure that functions
as one flower.
Ring of vascular bundles - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
Scattered vascular bundles - Monocot or Dicot?
Monocot
Vascular cambium present - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
No vascular cambium - Monocot or Dicot?
Monocot
Woody or Herbaceous - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
Primarily herbaceous (no true wood) - Monocot or Dicot?
Monocot
simple or compound leaves- monocot or dicot?
Dicot
usually simple leaves - monocot or dicot?
Monocot
net veined: pinnate, palmate - monocot or dicot?
Dicot
parallel (or striate) veination - monocot or dicot?
Monocot
narrow leaf insertion - monocot or dicot?
Dicot
leaf insertion usually broad, often with sheathing (wrapping around the stem)
Monocot
roots primary --> secondary - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
Primary roots abort; adventitious
roots only.
Monocot
Roots: taproots or fibrous - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
Roots: usually fibrous - Monocot or Dicot?
Monocot
floral parts in 4’s, 5’s, or ∞ - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
floral parts in 3's
Monocot
monosulcate OR tricolpate pollen - Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot
monosulcate pollen
Monocot
calcium oxalate crystals serve as a . . .
physical deterrent to herbivory
Epiphytic Plants
plants that are supported by some structure other than their own
stem. (usually other plants)
Epiphytic Plants - Modifications for drought resistance?
modifications for drought resistance:
- sunken stomata
- thick waxy cuticle
- absorbent scales OR swollen stems or aerial roots for water retention
What does a pollen pump do?
They expose the pollen to pollinators BEFORE the style splits open
exposing the stigmatic surface. The anthers release pollen before the stigma is receptive (when pollen is released from a flower before the stigma is receptive, it is called PROTANDRY).
What family is the pollen pump mechanism found in?
Asteraceae (Sunflower) Family
- WOODY
- flowers large and showy
- floral parts numerous, separate, spirally arranged
- elongate receptacle
Magnoliaceae
- WOODY
-leaves simple, alternate, entire, pinnate
-radial symmetry, parts in 3’s
-valvate anthers opening by 2-4 flaps
-drupe
Lauraceae
-usually herbs
-stamens usually many
-apocarpous gynoecium (separate carpels)
Ranunculaceae
-perennial herbs or shrubs
-floral parts usually in multiples of 3
-valvate anthers
Berberidaceae
- WOODY
- double serrated leaves
- monoecious plants (separate flowers, same plant)
- pistillate and staminate flowers in separate catkins
- ovary inferior
Betulaceae
- WOODY
- leaves simple, alternate
- monoecious plants (separate flowers, same plant)
- pistillate flowers in leaf axils
- staminate flowers in catkins
Fagaceae
- WOODY
- flower parts in 4’s or 5’s
- carpels 2, partially fused; ovary inferior
- hair in veins on bottom of leaves
Hamamelidaceae
- leaves simple, opposite
- swollen nodes
- petals entire to deeply lobed, often differentiated into a claw and a limb
Caryophyllaceae
- stem succulents
- areoles
Cactaceae
- usually herbs
- 2 to several sepals
- plants often fleshy
- 5 petals
Portulaceae
- leaves alternate, with sheathing stipules (ocreas)
Polygonaceae
- WOODY
- leaves simple, opposite, often palmately lobed
- samaroid schizocarp
- often Maples
Aceraceae
- 4 sepals, 4 petals,
- 4 + 2 stamens ( tetradynamous [4 long, 2 short] )
- 2 united carpels
- silicle or silique
Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
- leaves simple,commonly palmately lobed
- stellate hairs common (star shaped)
- stamens monadelphous, or in 5 clusters,
each with filaments basally connate
Malvaceae
- 4 sepals, 4 petals, 8 stamens,4 carpels
- petals often clawed or stipitate (born on stalk)
- ovary inferior, maybe long & slender
- Fuchsia
Onagraceae
- herbs
-flowers radial sym. parts in 5’s (including 5 carpels)
- ovary superior
- schizocarp of 5 segments
- 5 lobed style, persistent, hooked
Geraniaceae
-corolla polypetalous, spurred
-nectar guides
-stamens connivent
- connivent: converging, not actually united
Violaceae
- WOODY
-dioecious plants (separate flowers, separate plant)
-pistillate and staminate flowers in separate catkins
Salicaceae
- herbaceous
- 2-3 partially fused ovaries
Saxifragaceae
-milky latex
-carpels 3, connate
-schizocarpous capsule, forming 3 one-seeded parts
Rosaceae
-leaves simple or compound; stipulate
-leaflets with serrate margins
-hypanthium
Euphorbiaceae
- stamens numerous-10
- diadelphous stamens (9+1) in flag flowers
- some w/ mimosoid flowers
Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
- WOODY
- petals usually sympetalous, frequently urn shaped
-anthers usually with terminal pores & appendages
Ericaceae
-corolla sympetalous, convolute (twisted) bud
-unequal insertion of stamens on corolla
Polemoniaceae
- WOODY
- leaf veins arcing from base to tip
- inflorescence often subtended by showy bracts
- sometimes no petals > 4 bracts
- flower parts usually in 4’s
Cornaceae
- plants often hairy
- scorpioid or helicoid cymes
- style gynobasic, or terminal and bifid
- if style terminal & bifid, stamens usually exserted
- 4 nutlets (when gynobasic), or capsule
Boraginaceae
-plants often densely pubescent
-2 carpels, capitate (head-like) stigma
Solanaceae
- milky latex
- leaves opposite or whorled
- gynostegium, pollinia, corona (Asclepiadaceae)
- 2 carpels united at styles only
Apocynaceae (including Asclepiadaceae)
-square stems
-flowers zygomorphic, sympetalous, bilabiate
-4 nutlets (usually)
Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
-flowers zygomorphic, sympetalous, bilabiate
-didynamous stamens usually present
Scrophulariaceae s.l.
- WOODY
- leaves opposite
- flowers 4-parted
- stamens & carpels 2
Oleaceae
- leaves deeply divided, with sheathing base
- umbels (umbrella like inflorescence)
Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
- petals 5, connate with 2 upper and 3 lower lobes,
or 4 upper and 1 lower lobe; sometimes spurred
- ovary inferior; style elongate, stigma capitate
Caprifoliaceae (including Valerianaceae and Dipsacaceae)
-leaves opposite, simple to compound
-flowers actinomorphic
-corolla sympetalous with short tube
-stamens 5, epipetalous
-ovary inferior; style short; stigma lobed
-drupe with 1-5 pits
Adoxaceae (including Viburnum and Sambucus formerly Caprifoliaceae)
- head or capitulum, surrounded by phyllaries
- like a Daisy/Sunflower
Asteraceae (Compositae)
- spathe and spadix
- large shaft with thing surrounding it
- Fetid odor (stinks! Ahhhh!)
Araceae
- Pineapple-like
- Leaves alternate often forming water tanks
Bromeliaceae
-6 tepals (or 3 sepals and 3 petals), 6 stamens, 3 carpels
Liliaceae
-6 tepals (or 3 sepals and 3 petals), 3 stamens, 3 carpels
- lvs mostly basal and linear, 2-ranked and ‘equitant’ (overlapping in 2 ranks)
Iridaceae
-flowers zygomorphic
-labellum, column, pollinia
- Orchid-like
Orchidaceae
- Cat-tail like
Typhaceae
- Palms
Arecaceae
- “Rushes are Round”
- round, solid stems
- actual flowers
- lvs basal, 3-ranked, leaf sheaths open or closed
Juncaceae
- “Sedges have Edges”
- stems typically triangular
- leaves 3-ranked
- lvs 3-RANKED; sheath CLOSED
Cyperaceae
- “Grasses, like asses, have Holes”
- round, usually hollow stems
- lvs 2-RANKED; leaf sheaths OPEN
Poaceae (Gramineae)
The large subfamily Nepetoideae is characterized by aromatic oils
instead of iridoids. To which family does it belong?
Lamiaceae
Florets of Asteraceae that are:
usually female, zygomorphic
Ray Florets
Florets of Asteraceae that are:
usually hermaphrodite, actinomorphic (radially symmetric)
Dick Florets
ligulate flowers (‘strap-like’)
In Asteraceae, those who have only ray flowers.
synantherous androecium
Anthers fused at margins. Found in Asteraceae.
cypsela
Single seeded achene; fruit unique to Asteraceae.
growth by INTERCALARY MERISTEM
Growth at nodes rather than at tip of stem. Allows regeneration when tip is cut, as in grazing or mowing of prairies/lawns. Hypotheses of coevolution of grazers and grassland.
Photosynthetic eukaryotes (plants and algae) are derived from . . .
. . . the ENDOSYMBIOSIS of
a cyanobacterium and a non-photosynthetic eukaryotic cell at some point a long time ago.
autotrophs
Organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs (auto - self; troph -
nourish).
heterotrophs
Organisms that obtain nourishment by ingesting or absorbing carbohydrates produced by other organisms; these are called heterotrophs (hetero - other; trophs - nourish).
parasite
Parasite - an organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on, or in, a different organism at the expense of that organism and contributing nothing to the survival of its host. Type of SYMBIOSIS.
Mutualistic Symbiosis
Both organisms benefit.
commensalism
commensalism - one organism benefits, while the other neither benefits or suffers
Parasitism has evolved perhaps 20 times among flowering plants. In each case the plants have become parasitic on either other plants or fungi. These include 4 families we know. What are these 4?
Boraginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ericaceae, Orchidaceae
Plant parasites are the color . . .
black
Fungal parasites (mycotrophs) are the color . . .
green
haustorium
In PLANT PARASITES, a sucker-like swelling on a root or stem, which invades a host root or stem and makes a connection between the vascular tissue of the parasite and host.
holoparasites (or
obligate parasites)
Plants that obtain all of their nutrients from their host.
hemiparasites (or
facultative parasites)
Parasites that remain capable of photosynthesis, while supplementing their diet with host plant nutrients.
What are the six traits of Parasitic Reduction Syndrome ( found in holoparasites).
1) Loss of leaves - leaves reduced to scales
2) Small overall size of plant - no need for large plants to hold leaves
3) Loss of roots - reduced to short, stumpy projections with haustoria
4) Loss of chlorophyll
5) Loss of genes needed for photosynthesis
6) Higher substitution rate (more rapid DNA divergence) in genes that are not lost
Anagenesis
GRADUAL speciation inferred from the fossil record.
Cladogenesis
PUNCTUATED speciation inferred from the fossil record.
Allopatric
Speciation term - occupying separate geographic distributions
Sympatric
Speciation term - occupying the same or overlapping geographic distributions
This is perceived to be rare and some have argued that it does not occur.
Narrow endemic species
Narrow endemic (“restricted species”) - very restricted distribution; population
often less than 10,000 individuals
Scarce species
Scarce - broadly distributed and widely separated populations; never very abundant
Common species
Common - Regional distribution; abundant somewhere
Cosmopolitan species
Cosmopolitan - found everywhere (e.g., Bracken fern); this is unusual - <10% of spp.
Narrow endemic -PALEOENDEMIC
Paleoendemics - ancient origin, left over from wider distribution, and typically have no closely related species
Narrow endemic - NEOENDEMIC
Neoendemics - recent in origin (typically post-Tertiary in origin) and typically have
closely related species nearby